「Linux下,sftp命令使用详解」

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sftp — secure file transfer program

SYNOPSIS

sftp [-46aCfpqrv] [-B buffer_size] [-b batchfile] [-c cipher] [-D sftp_server_path] [-F ssh_config]

[-i identity_file] [-l limit] [-o ssh_option] [-P port] [-R num_requests] [-S program]

[-s subsystem | sftp_server] host

sftp [user@]host[:file …]

sftp [user@]host[:dir[/]]

sftp -b batchfile [user@]host

DESCRIPTION

sftp is an interactive file transfer program, similar to ftp(1), which performs all operations over an
encrypted ssh(1) transport. It may also use many features of ssh, such as public key authentication and com‐
pression. sftp connects and logs into the specified host, then enters an interactive command mode.

The second usage format will retrieve files automatically if a non-interactive authentication method is used;
otherwise it will do so after successful interactive authentication.

The third usage format allows sftp to start in a remote directory.

The final usage format allows for automated sessions using the -b option. In such cases, it is necessary to
configure non-interactive authentication to obviate the need to enter a password at connection time (see
sshd(8) and ssh-keygen(1) for details).

Since some usage formats use colon characters to delimit host names from path names, IPv6 addresses must be
enclosed in square brackets to avoid ambiguity.

The options are as follows:

-4 Forces sftp to use IPv4 addresses only.

-6 Forces sftp to use IPv6 addresses only.

-a Attempt to continue interrupted transfers rather than overwriting existing partial or complete copies

of files. If the partial contents differ from those being transferred, then the resultant file is

likely to be corrupt.

-B buffer_size

Specify the size of the buffer that sftp uses when transferring files. Larger buffers require fewer

round trips at the cost of higher memory consumption. The default is 32768 bytes.

-b batchfile

Batch mode reads a series of commands from an input batchfile instead of stdin. Since it lacks user

interaction it should be used in conjunction with non-interactive authentication. A batchfile of ‘-’

may be used to indicate standard input. sftp will abort if any of the following commands fail: get,

put, reget, reput, rename, ln, rm, mkdir, chdir, ls, lchdir, chmod, chown, chgrp, lpwd, df, symlink,

and lmkdir. Termination on error can be suppressed on a command by command basis by prefixing the com‐

mand with a ‘-’ character (for example, -rm /tmp/blah*).

-C Enables compression (via ssh’s -C flag).

-c cipher

Selects the cipher to use for encrypting the data transfers. This option is directly passed to ssh(1).

-D sftp_server_path

Connect directly to a local sftp server (rather than via ssh(1)). This option may be useful in debug‐

ging the client and server.

-F ssh_config

Specifies an alternative per-user configuration file for ssh(1). This option is directly passed to

ssh(1).

-f Requests that files be flushed to disk immediately after transfer. When uploading files, this feature

is only enabled if the server implements the ”
fsync@openssh.com” extension.

-i identity_file

Selects the file from which the identity (private key) for public key authentication is read. This

option is directly passed to ssh(1).

-l limit

Limits the used bandwidth, specified in Kbit/s.

-o ssh_option

Can be used to pass options to ssh in the format used in ssh_config(5). This is useful for specifying

options for which there is no separate sftp command-line flag. For example, to specify an alternate

port use: sftp -oPort=24. For full details of the options listed below, and their possible values, see

ssh_config(5).

AddressFamily

BatchMode

BindAddress

CanonicalDomains

CanonicalizeFallbackLocal

CanonicalizeHostname

CanonicalizeMaxDots

CanonicalizePermittedCNAMEs

CertificateFile

ChallengeResponseAuthentication

CheckHostIP

Ciphers

Compression

ConnectionAttempts

ConnectTimeout

ControlMaster

ControlPath

ControlPersist

GlobalKnownHostsFile

GSSAPIAuthentication

GSSAPIDelegateCredentials

HashKnownHosts

Host

HostbasedAuthentication

HostbasedKeyTypes

HostKeyAlgorithms

HostKeyAlias

HostName

IdentitiesOnly

IdentityAgent

IdentityFile

IPQoS

KbdInteractiveAuthentication

KbdInteractiveDevices

KexAlgorithms

LogLevel

MACs

NoHostAuthenticationForLocalhost

NumberOfPasswordPrompts

PasswordAuthentication

PKCS11Provider

Port

PreferredAuthentications

ProxyCommand

ProxyJump

PubkeyAcceptedKeyTypes

PubkeyAuthentication

RekeyLimit

SendEnv

ServerAliveInterval

ServerAliveCountMax

StrictHostKeyChecking

TCPKeepAlive

UpdateHostKeys

UsePrivilegedPort

User

UserKnownHostsFile

VerifyHostKeyDNS

-P port

Specifies the port to connect to on the remote host.

-p Preserves modification times, access times, and modes from the original files transferred.

-q Quiet mode: disables the progress meter as well as warning and diagnostic messages from ssh(1).

-R num_requests

Specify how many requests may be outstanding at any one time. Increasing this may slightly improve

file transfer speed but will increase memory usage. The default is 64 outstanding requests.

-r
在上传或者下载时,递归复制整个目录。注意,在目录遍历的时候,sftp并不会跟随符号链接指向的地址。
如果在上传或者下载目录时未指定-r选项,会产生Cannot download non-regular file错误。

-S program

Name of the program to use for the encrypted connection. The program must understand ssh(1) options.

-s subsystem | sftp_server

Specifies the SSH2 subsystem or the path for an sftp server on the remote host. A path is useful when

the remote sshd(8) does not have an sftp subsystem configured.

-v Raise logging level. This option is also passed to ssh.

交互式命令(INTERACTIVE COMMANDS)

Once in interactive mode, sftp understands a set of commands similar to those of ftp(1). Commands are case
insensitive. Pathnames that contain spaces must be enclosed in quotes. Any special characters contained
within pathnames that are recognized by glob(3) must be escaped with backslashes (‘\’).

bye Quit sftp.

cd path

Change remote directory to path.

chgrp grp path

Change group of file path to grp. path may contain glob(3) characters and may match multiple files.

grp must be a numeric GID.

chmod mode path

Change permissions of file path to mode. path may contain glob(3) characters and may match multiple

files.

chown own path

Change owner of file path to own. path may contain glob(3) characters and may match multiple files.

own must be a numeric UID.

df [-hi] [path]

Display usage information for the filesystem holding the current directory (or path if specified). If

the -h flag is specified, the capacity information will be displayed using “human-readable” suffixes.

The -i flag requests display of inode information in addition to capacity information. This command is

only supported on servers that implement the “
statvfs@openssh.com” extension.

exit Quit sftp.

get [-afPpr] remote-path [local-path]

Retrieve the remote-path and store it on the local machine. If the local path name is not specified,

it is given the same name it has on the remote machine. remote-path may contain glob(3) characters and

may match multiple files. If it does and local-path is specified, then local-path must specify a

directory.

If the -a flag is specified, then attempt to resume partial transfers of existing files. Note that

resumption assumes that any partial copy of the local file matches the remote copy. If the remote file

contents differ from the partial local copy then the resultant file is likely to be corrupt.

If the -f flag is specified, then fsync(2) will be called after the file transfer has completed to

flush the file to disk.

If either the -P or -p flag is specified, then full file permissions and access times are copied too.

If the -r flag is specified then directories will be copied recursively. Note that sftp does not fol‐

low symbolic links when performing recursive transfers.

help Display help text.

lcd path

Change local directory to path.

lls [ls-options [path]]

Display local directory listing of either path or current directory if path is not specified.

ls-options may contain any flags supported by the local system’s ls(1) command. path may contain

glob(3) characters and may match multiple files.

lmkdir path

Create local directory specified by path.

ln [-s] oldpath newpath

Create a link from oldpath to newpath. If the -s flag is specified the created link is a symbolic

link, otherwise it is a hard link.

lpwd Print local working directory.

ls [-1afhlnrSt] [path]

Display a remote directory listing of either path or the current directory if path is not specified.

path may contain glob(3) characters and may match multiple files.

The following flags are recognized and alter the behaviour of ls accordingly:

-1 Produce single columnar output.

-a List files beginning with a dot (‘.’).

-f Do not sort the listing. The default sort order is lexicographical.

-h When used with a long format option, use unit suffixes: Byte, Kilobyte, Megabyte, Gigabyte,
Terabyte, Petabyte, and Exabyte in order to reduce the number of digits to four or fewer using

powers of 2 for sizes (K=1024, M=1048576, etc.).

-l Display additional details including permissions and ownership information.

-n Produce a long listing with user and group information presented numerically.

-r Reverse the sort order of the listing.

-S Sort the listing by file size.

-t Sort the listing by last modification time.

lumask umask

Set local umask to umask.

mkdir path

Create remote directory specified by path.

progress

Toggle display of progress meter.

put [-afPpr] local-path [remote-path]

Upload local-path and store it on the remote machine. If the remote path name is not specified, it is

given the same name it has on the local machine. local-path may contain glob(3) characters and may

match multiple files. If it does and remote-path is specified, then remote-path must specify a direc‐

tory.

If the -a flag is specified, then attempt to resume partial transfers of existing files. Note that

resumption assumes that any partial copy of the remote file matches the local copy. If the local file

contents differ from the remote local copy then the resultant file is likely to be corrupt.

If the -f flag is specified, then a request will be sent to the server to call fsync(2) after the file

has been transferred. Note that this is only supported by servers that implement the


fsync@openssh.com” extension.

If either the -P or -p flag is specified, then full file permissions and access times are copied too.

If the -r flag is specified then directories will be copied recursively. Note that sftp does not fol‐

low symbolic links when performing recursive transfers.

pwd Display remote working directory.

quit Quit sftp.

reget [-Ppr] remote-path [local-path]

Resume download of remote-path. Equivalent to get with the -a flag set.

reput [-Ppr] [local-path] remote-path

Resume upload of [local-path]. Equivalent to put with the -a flag set.

rename oldpath newpath

Rename remote file from oldpath to newpath.

rm path

Delete remote file specified by path.

rmdir path

Remove remote directory specified by path.

symlink oldpath newpath

Create a symbolic link from oldpath to newpath.

version

Display the sftp protocol version.

!command

Execute command in local shell.

! Escape to local shell.

? Synonym for help.

SEE ALSO

ftp(1), ls(1), scp(1), ssh(1), ssh-add(1), ssh-keygen(1), glob(3), ssh_config(5), sftp-server(8), sshd(8)

T. Ylonen and S. Lehtinen, SSH File Transfer Protocol, draft-ietf-secsh-filexfer-00.txt, January 2001, work in
progress material.

参考文献

  • man 1 sftp, version OpenSSH 7.6p1-2