「git-branch」

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git-branch,查看、创建、删除分支。

命令行语法

git branch [–color[=<when>] | –no-color] [-r | -a]
[–list] [-v [–abbrev=<length> | –no-abbrev]]
[–column[=<options>] | –no-column]
[(–merged | –no-merged | –contains) [<commit>]] [–sort=<key>]
[–points-at <object>] [<pattern>…]
git branch [–set-upstream | –track | –no-track] [-l] [-f] <branchname> [<start-point>]
git branch (–set-upstream-to=<upstream> | -u <upstream>) [<branchname>]
git branch –unset-upstream [<branchname>]
git branch (-m | -M) [<oldbranch>] <newbranch>
git branch (-d | -D) [-r] <branchname>…
git branch –edit-description [<branchname>]

描述

If –list is given, or if there are no non-option arguments, existing
branches are listed; the current branch will be highlighted with an
asterisk. Option -r causes the remote-tracking branches to be listed, and
option -a shows both local and remote branches. If a <pattern> is given,
it is used as a shell wildcard to restrict the output to matching
branches. If multiple patterns are given, a branch is shown if it matches
any of the patterns. Note that when providing a <pattern>, you must use
–list; otherwise the command is interpreted as branch creation.

With –contains, shows only the branches that contain the named commit (in
other words, the branches whose tip commits are descendants of the named
commit). With –merged, only branches merged into the named commit (i.e.
the branches whose tip commits are reachable from the named commit) will
be listed. With –no-merged only branches not merged into the named commit
will be listed. If the <commit> argument is missing it defaults to HEAD
(i.e. the tip of the current branch).

The command’s second form creates a new branch head named <branchname>
which points to the current HEAD, or <start-point> if given.

Note that this will create the new branch, but it will not switch the
working tree to it; use “git checkout <newbranch>” to switch to the new
branch.

When a local branch is started off a remote-tracking branch, Git sets up
the branch (specifically the branch.<name>.remote and branch.<name>.merge
configuration entries) so that git pull will appropriately merge from the
remote-tracking branch. This behavior may be changed via the global
branch.autoSetupMerge configuration flag. That setting can be overridden
by using the –track and –no-track options, and changed later using git
branch –set-upstream-to.

With a -m or -M option, <oldbranch> will be renamed to <newbranch>. If
<oldbranch> had a corresponding reflog, it is renamed to match
<newbranch>, and a reflog entry is created to remember the branch
renaming. If <newbranch> exists, -M must be used to force the rename to
happen.

With a -d or -D option, <branchname> will be deleted. You may specify more
than one branch for deletion. If the branch currently has a reflog then
the reflog will also be deleted.

Use -r together with -d to delete remote-tracking branches. Note, that it
only makes sense to delete remote-tracking branches if they no longer
exist in the remote repository or if git fetch was configured not to fetch
them again. See also the prune subcommand of git-remote(1) for a way to
clean up all obsolete remote-tracking branches.

命令行选项及含义

-d, –delete
删除一个分支。
The branch must be fully merged in its upstream
branch, or in HEAD if no upstream was set with –track or
–set-upstream.

-D
–delete –force的简写。

-l, –create-reflog
Create the branch’s reflog. This activates recording of all changes
made to the branch ref, enabling use of date based sha1 expressions
such as “<branchname>@{yesterday}”. Note that in non-bare
repositories, reflogs are usually enabled by default by the
core.logallrefupdates config option.

-f, –force
Reset <branchname> to <startpoint> if <branchname> exists already.
Without -f git branch refuses to change an existing branch. In
combination with -d (or –delete), allow deleting the branch
irrespective of its merged status. In combination with -m (or –move),
allow renaming the branch even if the new branch name already exists.

-m, –move
移动或者重命名分支,以及相应的reflog。

-M
Shortcut for –move –force.

–color[=<when>]
Color branches to highlight current, local, and remote-tracking
branches. The value must be always (the default), never, or auto.

–no-color
Turn off branch colors, even when the configuration file gives the
default to color output. Same as –color=never.

–column[=<options>], –no-column
Display branch listing in columns. See configuration variable
column.branch for option syntax.–column and –no-column without
options are equivalent to always and never respectively.

This option is only applicable in non-verbose mode.

-r, –remotes
列出或者删除(使用了-d选项)远程追踪分支。

-a, –all
List both remote-tracking branches and local branches.

–list
Activate the list mode. git branch <pattern> would try to create a
branch, use git branch –list <pattern> to list matching branches.

-v, -vv, –verbose
When in list mode, show sha1 and commit subject line for each head,
along with relationship to upstream branch (if any). If given twice,
print the name of the upstream branch, as well (see also git remote
show <remote>).

-q, –quiet
Be more quiet when creating or deleting a branch, suppressing
non-error messages.

–abbrev=<length>
Alter the sha1’s minimum display length in the output listing. The
default value is 7 and can be overridden by the core.abbrev config
option.

–no-abbrev
Display the full sha1s in the output listing rather than abbreviating
them.

-t, –track
When creating a new branch, set up branch.<name>.remote and
branch.<name>.merge configuration entries to mark the start-point
branch as “upstream” from the new branch. This configuration will tell
git to show the relationship between the two branches in git status
and git branch -v. Furthermore, it directs git pull without arguments
to pull from the upstream when the new branch is checked out.

This behavior is the default when the start point is a remote-tracking
branch. Set the branch.autoSetupMerge configuration variable to false
if you want git checkout and git branch to always behave as if
–no-track were given. Set it to always if you want this behavior when
the start-point is either a local or remote-tracking branch.

–no-track
Do not set up “upstream” configuration, even if the
branch.autoSetupMerge configuration variable is true.

–set-upstream
If specified branch does not exist yet or if –force has been given,
acts exactly like –track. Otherwise sets up configuration like
–track would when creating the branch, except that where branch
points to is not changed.

-u <upstream>, –set-upstream-to=<upstream>
Set up <branchname>’s tracking information so <upstream> is considered
<branchname>’s upstream branch. If no <branchname> is specified, then
it defaults to the current branch.

–unset-upstream
Remove the upstream information for <branchname>. If no branch is
specified it defaults to the current branch.

–edit-description
打开编辑器,编辑分支的描述信息。由各种其他命令使用(比如:format-patch, request-pull, merge)。
可以使用多行描述。

–contains [<commit>]
Only list branches which contain the specified commit (HEAD if not
specified). Implies –list.

–merged [<commit>]
Only list branches whose tips are reachable from the specified commit
(HEAD if not specified). Implies –list.

–no-merged [<commit>]
Only list branches whose tips are not reachable from the specified
commit (HEAD if not specified). Implies –list.

<branchname>
The name of the branch to create or delete. The new branch name must
pass all checks defined by git-check-ref-format(1). Some of these
checks may restrict the characters allowed in a branch name.

<start-point>
The new branch head will point to this commit. It may be given as a
branch name, a commit-id, or a tag. If this option is omitted, the
current HEAD will be used instead.

<oldbranch>
The name of an existing branch to rename.

<newbranch>
The new name for an existing branch. The same restrictions as for
<branchname> apply.

–sort=<key>
Sort based on the key given. Prefix – to sort in descending order of
the value. You may use the –sort=<key> option multiple times, in
which case the last key becomes the primary key. The keys supported
are the same as those in git for-each-ref. Sort order defaults to
sorting based on the full refname (including refs/… prefix). This
lists detached HEAD (if present) first, then local branches and
finally remote-tracking branches.

–points-at <object>
Only list branches of the given object.

示例

Start development from a known tag

$ git clone git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/…/linux-2.6 my2.6
$ cd my2.6
$ git branch my2.6.14 v2.6.14 (1)
$ git checkout my2.6.14

  1. This step and the next one could be combined into a single step

with “checkout -b my2.6.14 v2.6.14”.

Delete an unneeded branch

$ git clone git://git.kernel.org/…/git.git my.git
$ cd my.git
$ git branch -d -r origin/todo origin/html origin/man (1)
$ git branch -D test (2)

  1. Delete the remote-tracking branches “todo”, “html” and “man”. The

next fetch or pull will create them again unless you configure them

not to. See git-fetch(1).

  1. Delete the “test” branch even if the “master” branch (or whichever

branch is currently checked out) does not have all commits from the

test branch.

注意事项

If you are creating a branch that you want to checkout immediately, it is
easier to use the git checkout command with its -b option to create a
branch and check it out with a single command.

The options –contains, –merged and –no-merged serve three related but
different purposes:

· –contains <commit> is used to find all branches which will need
special attention if <commit> were to be rebased or amended, since
those branches contain the specified <commit>.

· –merged is used to find all branches which can be safely deleted,
since those branches are fully contained by HEAD.

· –no-merged is used to find branches which are candidates for merging
into HEAD, since those branches are not fully contained by HEAD.