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Emacs编辑器

命令语法格式

emacs [ command-line switches ] [ files … ]

命令描述

GNU Emacs是Emacs的一个版本,由原始(PDP-10)Emacs的作者Richard Stallman编写。GNU Emacs的用户功能包含其他编辑器所做的一切,并且由于其编辑命令是用Lisp编写的,所以它很容易扩展。

GNU Emacs的主要文档在GNU Emacs手册中,可以使用Info从Emacs或作为独立程序阅读。请查看完整和最新的文档。此手册页仅在有人志愿者更新时更新。

Emacs有一个广泛的交互式帮助工具,但该工具假设您知道如何操作Emacs窗口和缓冲区:

  • CTRL-h或F1进入Help工具;
  • (CTRL-h t)Help Tutorial启动一个交互式教程,以快速向初学者讲授Emacs的基础知识;
  • (CTRL-h a)Help Apropos帮助您查找名称与给定模式匹配的命令;
  • (CTRL-h k)Help Key描述给定的键序列;
  • Help Function(CTRL-h f)描述给定的Lisp函数。

GNU Emacs的许多特殊包能够处理邮件阅读(RMail)和发送(Mail),大纲编辑(Outline),编译(编译),在Emacs窗口中运行子Shell(Shell),运行Lisp的read-eval-print循环(Lisp-Interaction-Mode),自动化心理治疗(Doctor)等等。

命令支持的选项及含义

一般选项

file
Edit file.

–file file, –find-file file, –visit file
The same as specifying file directly as an argument.

+number
Go to the line specified by number (do not insert a space between the “+” sign and the number). This applies only to the next file specified.

+line:column
Go to the specified line and column.

–chdir directory
Change to directory.

-q, –no-init-file
Do not load an init file.

-nl, –no-shared-memory
Do not use shared memory.

–no-site-file
Do not load the site-wide startup file.

-nsl, –no-site-lisp
Do not add site-lisp directories to load-path.

–no-desktop
Do not load a saved desktop.

-Q, –quick
Similar to “-q –no-site-file –no-splash”. Also, avoid processing X resources.

–no-splash
Do not display a splash screen during start-up.

–debug-init
Enable Emacs Lisp debugger during the processing of the user init file ~/.emacs. This is useful for debugging problems
in the init file.

-u user, –user user
Load user’s init file.

-t file, –terminal file
Use specified file as the terminal instead of using stdin/stdout. This must be the first argument specified in the
command line.

–daemon
Start Emacs as a daemon, enabling the Emacs server and disconnecting from the terminal. You can then use the emac‐
sclient command to connect to the server (see emacsclient(1)).

–version
Display Emacs version information and exit.

–help Display this help and exit.

The following options are Lisp-oriented (these options are processed in the order encountered):

-f function, –funcall function
Execute the lisp function function.

-l file, –load file
Load the lisp code in the file file.

–eval expr, –execute expr
Evaluate the Lisp expression expr.

The following options are useful when running Emacs as a batch editor:

–batch Edit in batch mode. The editor will send messages to stderr. You must use -l and -f options to specify files to exe‐
cute and functions to call.

–script file
Run file as an Emacs Lisp script.

–insert file
Insert contents of file into the current buffer.

–kill Exit Emacs while in batch mode.

-L dir, –directory dir
Add dir to the list of directories Emacs searches for Lisp files.

Using Emacs with X

Emacs has been tailored to work well with the X window system. If you run Emacs from under X windows, it will create its own X window

to display in. You will probably want to start the editor as a background process so that you can continue using your original win‐

dow.

Emacs can be started with the following X switches:

–name name
Specify the name which should be assigned to the initial Emacs window. This controls looking up X resources as well as

the window title.

-T name, –title name
Specify the title for the initial X window.

-r, -rv, –reverse-video
Display the Emacs window in reverse video.

-fn font, –font font
Set the Emacs window’s font to that specified by font. You will find the various X fonts in the /usr/lib/X11/fonts

directory. Note that Emacs will only accept fixed width fonts. Under the X11 Release 4 font-naming conventions, any

font with the value “m” or “c” in the eleventh field of the font name is a fixed width font. Furthermore, fonts whose

name are of the form widthxheight are generally fixed width, as is the font fixed. See xlsfonts(1) for more informa‐

tion.

When you specify a font, be sure to put a space between the switch and the font name.

–xrm resources
Set additional X resources.

–color, –color=mode
Override color mode for character terminals; mode defaults to “auto”, and can also be “never”, “auto”, “always”, or a

mode name like “ansi8”.

-bw pixels, –border-width pixels
Set the Emacs window’s border width to the number of pixels specified by pixels. Defaults to one pixel on each side of

the window.

-ib pixels, –internal-border pixels
Set the window’s internal border width to the number of pixels specified by pixels. Defaults to one pixel of padding

on each side of the window.

-g geometry, –geometry geometry
Set the Emacs window’s width, height, and position as specified. The geometry specification is in the standard X for‐

mat; see X(7) for more information. The width and height are specified in characters; the default is 80 by 24. See

the Emacs manual, section “Options for Window Size and Position”, for information on how window sizes interact with

selecting or deselecting the tool bar and menu bar.

-lsp pixels, –line-spacing pixels
Additional space to put between lines.

-vb, –vertical-scroll-bars
Enable vertical scrollbars.

-fh, –fullheight
Make the first frame as high as the screen.

-fs, –fullscreen
Make the first frame fullscreen.

-fw, –fullwidth
Make the first frame as wide as the screen.

-mm, –maximized
Maximize the first frame, like “-fw -fh”.

-fg color, –foreground-color color
On color displays, set the color of the text.

Use the command M-x list-colors-display for a list of valid color names.

-bg color, –background-color color
On color displays, set the color of the window’s background.

-bd color, –border-color color
On color displays, set the color of the window’s border.

-cr color, –cursor-color color
On color displays, set the color of the window’s text cursor.

-ms color, –mouse-color color
On color displays, set the color of the window’s mouse cursor.

-d displayname, –display displayname
Create the Emacs window on the display specified by displayname. Must be the first option specified in the command

line.

-nbi, –no-bitmap-icon
Do not use picture of gnu for Emacs icon.

–iconic
Start Emacs in iconified state.

-nbc, –no-blinking-cursor
Disable blinking cursor.

–parent-id xid
Set parent window.

-nw, –no-window-system
Tell Emacs not to create a graphical frame. If you use this switch when invoking Emacs from an xterm(1) window, dis‐

play is done in that window.

-D, –basic-display
This option disables many display features; use it for debugging Emacs.

You can set X default values for your Emacs windows in your .Xresources file (see xrdb(1)). Use the following format:

emacs.keyword:value

where value specifies the default value of keyword. Emacs lets you set default values for the following keywords:

background (class Background)
For color displays, sets the window’s background color.

bitmapIcon (class BitmapIcon)
If bitmapIcon’s value is set to on, the window will iconify into the “kitchen sink.”

borderColor (class BorderColor)
For color displays, sets the color of the window’s border.

borderWidth (class BorderWidth)
Sets the window’s border width in pixels.

cursorColor (class Foreground)
For color displays, sets the color of the window’s text cursor.

cursorBlink (class CursorBlink)
Specifies whether to make the cursor blink. The default is on. Use off or false to turn cursor blinking off.

font (class Font)
Sets the window’s text font.

foreground (class Foreground)
For color displays, sets the window’s text color.

fullscreen (class Fullscreen)
The desired fullscreen size. The value can be one of fullboth, maximized, fullwidth, or fullheight, which correspond

to the command-line options “-fs”, “-mm”, “-fw”, and “-fh”, respectively. Note that this applies to the initial frame

only.

geometry (class Geometry)
Sets the geometry of the Emacs window (as described above).

iconName (class Title)
Sets the icon name for the Emacs window icon.

internalBorder (class BorderWidth)
Sets the window’s internal border width in pixels.

lineSpacing (class LineSpacing)
Additional space (“leading”) between lines, in pixels.

menuBar (class MenuBar)
Gives frames menu bars if on; don’t have menu bars if off. See the Emacs manual, sections “Lucid Resources” and “Motif

Resources”, for how to control the appearance of the menu bar if you have one.

minibuffer (class Minibuffer)
If none, don’t make a minibuffer in this frame. It will use a separate minibuffer frame instead.

paneFont (class Font)
Font name for menu pane titles, in non-toolkit versions of Emacs.

pointerColor (class Foreground)
For color displays, sets the color of the window’s mouse cursor.

privateColormap (class PrivateColormap)
If on, use a private color map, in the case where the “default visual” of class PseudoColor and Emacs is using it.

reverseVideo (class ReverseVideo)
If reverseVideo’s value is set to on, the window will be displayed in reverse video.

screenGamma (class ScreenGamma)
Gamma correction for colors, equivalent to the frame parameter “screen-gamma”.

scrollBarWidth (class ScrollBarWidth)
The scroll bar width in pixels, equivalent to the frame parameter “scroll-bar-width”.

selectionFont (class SelectionFont)
Font name for pop-up menu items, in non-toolkit versions of Emacs. (For toolkit versions, see the Emacs manual, sec‐

tions “Lucid Resources” and “Motif Resources”.)

selectionTimeout (class SelectionTimeout)
Number of milliseconds to wait for a selection reply. A value of 0 means wait as long as necessary.

synchronous (class Synchronous)
Run Emacs in synchronous mode if on. Synchronous mode is useful for debugging X problems.

title (class Title)
Sets the title of the Emacs window.

toolBar (class ToolBar)
Number of lines to reserve for the tool bar.

useXIM (class UseXIM)
Turns off use of X input methods (XIM) if false or off.

verticalScrollBars (class ScrollBars)
Gives frames scroll bars if on; suppresses scroll bars if off.

visualClass (class VisualClass)
Specify the “visual” that X should use. This tells X how to handle colors. The value should start with one of True‐

Color, PseudoColor, DirectColor, StaticColor, GrayScale, and StaticGray, followed by -depth, where depth is the number

of color planes.

相关文件

/usr/local/share/info
files for the Info documentation browser. The complete text of the Emacs reference manual is included in a convenient tree structured form. Also includes the Emacs Lisp Reference Manual, useful to anyone wishing to write programs in the Emacs Lisp extension language, and the Introduction to Programming in Emacs Lisp.

/usr/local/share/emacs/$VERSION/lisp
Lisp source files and compiled files that define most editing commands. Some are preloaded; others are autoloaded from this directory when used.

/usr/local/libexec/emacs/$VERSION/$ARCH
various programs that are used with GNU Emacs.

/usr/local/share/emacs/$VERSION/etc
various files of information.

/usr/local/share/emacs/$VERSION/etc/DOC.*
contains the documentation strings for the Lisp primitives and preloaded Lisp functions of GNU Emacs. They are stored here to reduce the size of Emacs proper.

相关手册

emacsclient(1), etags(1), X(7), xlsfonts(1), xterm(1), xrdb(1)

参考文献

  • man 1 emacs, Version 25.2+1-6+b1

更新日志

  • 08/27/2018 创建文章