「Chapter 20- 副词从句简化之二」

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简化从句是比较复杂的句型。因为它有精简、浓缩的特色,也 是修辞效果相当好的句型。其中又以副词从句的简化最为复杂。上 -章探讨了副词从句简化为Ving形式的变化,本章继续探讨副词 从句简化的其他变化。
简化为Ven
从属从句简化的共同原则是省略主语与be动词。副词从句中 如果原本是被动态(be+Ven),那么简化之后没有了 be动词,就会 成为Ven的形态。例如:
After he was shot in the knee, he couldn’t fight.
副词从句
(膝盖中枪后,他就不能作战了。)
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例句中副词从句的主语he与主要从句的主语相同,可以简化。 省去主语与be动词后,不再需要连接词,成为:
Shot in the knee, he couldn’t fight.
简化副词从句
一、是否保留连接词
上例中连接词after可以不留,因为shot是过去分词,本身就 表示“已经中枪”、“中枪之后”,已有完成式的暗示,因而不再需 要after一词。但下面的例子则不同:
i .
Although he was shot in the knee, he killed three more enemy 副词从句
soldiers.(虽然膝盖中枪,他仍多杀了三名敌军。)
句中连接词although带有“相反”的暗示,省去后意思会有出 入,应该予以保留:
Although shot in the knee, he killed three more enemy soldiers. 简化副词从句
或者,•如果省略although的话,也必须用其他方式来表示句中 的“相反”暗示,例如:
Shot in the knee, he still killed three more enemy soldiers.

二、三个特殊的连接词
另外,连接词如果要留下来,要注意一点:before, after, since 这三个连接词也可以当介系词用。如果其中任何一个出现在简化从 句中,由于没有了主语、动词,这个连接词就得当介系词看待,亦 即:后面要接名词。例如:
Before it was redecorated, the house was in bad shape.
副词从句
(这栋房子重新装潢之前状况很糟。)
副词从句简化之后,连接词before不能省略,否则意思会不同, 成为:
Redecorated, the house was in bad shape.
因为过去分词redecorated有完成的暗示,上面这句的意思是 “重新装潢后,这栋房子状况很糟。”若要维持原意,则连接词before 不能省略。但是,before是可以当介系词使用的连接词,留下来又 会有问题:
Before redecorated, the house was in bad shape.(误)
上句的错误在于before此时是介系词,后面却只有形容词类的 redecorated,造成语法错误。修改的办法是改变redecorated的词性。 若要保留它的被动态,就不能作词尾的词类变化,只能在前面加 being来作词类变化:

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Befbre being redecorated the house was in bad shape. 简化副词从句
be动词是没有内容的字眼。在此加上being 一词,纯粹是因应 词类变化的需求:用动名词词尾的-ing来变成名词,以符合before 介系词的要求。另外,以这个例子而言,忽略redecorated的被动 态,改成名词redecorated,意思仍不失清楚:
Before redecoration, the house was in bad shape. 介系词短语
除了 before以外,aher和since这两个连接词如需保留,也都 要注意词类的问题。
如何应用having been
许多学习者对having been颇觉困扰。在此用一个例子来说明
它的用法:
1.Because they had been warned, they proceeded carefully.
副词从句
(因为已经得到警告,他们就很小心地进行。)
简化这个句子里的副词从句时,主语they当然可以先省掉。动 词had been warned有两种处理方式。be动词固然没有内容,可以 省略,但是had been是be动词的完成式,有“已经……”的意味。 如果要保留下来,就得先把had been改成分词类的having been,成 为:
E AS Y孥英语

2.Having been warned, they proceeded carefully.
简化副词从句
另外,如果忽略例1中had been的完成式内容,把整个be动 词的完成式视同一般的be动词,随主语一起省略,就可以把例1简 化为:
3.Warned, they proceeded carefully.
简化副词从句
这个句子中,warned 字是过去分词,本身就具有完成的暗 示(表示“已经”受到警告),所以把had been省略并不影响句意。
如果把例2和例3两句比较一下,当可发现:having been后面 如果跟的是过去分词,那么即使把having been省略,在语法上同 样正确(因为例2的having…和例3的warned同属分词,词类相 同),而且在意思上也相同。因为例2的having been是表达”已经” 的意思,而例3里的warned同样表达了 “已经”的意思。所以,having been后面如果跟的是过去分词,就可省略,不会有任何影响。
四、主语不同时
副词从句简化为Ven,如果主语和主要从句的主语不同,就得 把主语留下来,不得省略」例如:
When the coffin had been interred the minister said a few 副词从句
comforting words.
(棺材入土后,牧师说了几句安慰的话。)
副词从句的主语是棺材,和主要从句的主语牧师不同,不能省 略,不然会出现下面的结果:
(Having been) interred, the minister said a few comforting words.
(误)
这个意思是“入土之后,牧师说了几句安慰的话。”也就是牧 师入土了,在地下说话!正确的做法是:主语不同时要把主语留 下,动词加以简化,并省去连接词,成为:
The coffin (having been) interred the minister said a few 简化副词从句
comforting words.
五、简化为toV
如果原来的副词从句中有语气助动词(can, should, must之 类),带有不确定语气,简化之后就会成为不定词。例如:
He studied hard in order that he could get a scholarship.
副词从句
(他用功读书,为的是要拿奖学金。)
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副词从句的动词could get并不表示拿到了奖学金,只是想要 拿,带有不确定语气。这时就可简化为不定词。从前提过,所有的 语气助动词都可改写为be+to的形状,意思不会有太大的变化。所 以助动词的简化,去除了 be动词就剩下to,成为不定词:
He studied hard in order to get a scholarship.
简化副词从句
再看一个例子:
I,ll only be too glad if I can help.
副词从句
(如果帮得上忙,我非常乐意。)
副词从句中的动词can help有助动词在,仍是不确定语气:还 没开始帮忙。简化后成为:
ril only be too glad to help.
简化副词从句
副词从句中凡有助动词存在,简化的结果都是一样连接词省 略,主语如果相同亦省略,助动词拿掉be动词之后变成to,所以 就剩下to V的结果。
单纯的be动词时
如果副词从句的动词是单纯的be动词,后面可能是一般的名 词、形容词类的补语。要简化时,首先得注意主语要和主要从句的
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主语相同,然后才可以把连接词留下来,省去主语和be动词,留 下补语。例如:
、介系词短语• •
When you are under attack, you must take cover immediately. 副词从句
(受到攻击时,要立刻寻找掩护。)
这个副词从句的动词是be动词,补语是介系词短语under attack0简化后成为:
When under attack, you must take cover immediately. 简化副词从句
、形容词
While it is small in size, the company is very competitive. 副词从句
(这家公司规模虽小,但很有竞争力。)
副词从句中的补语是形容词small,简化方式相同:
While small in size the company is very competitive. 简化副词从句
三、名词
Although he was a doctor by training, Asimov became a writer. 副词从句
(虽然接受的是做医生的训练,但阿西莫夫后来成了作家。)

副词从句中的补语是名词a doctor,简化后成为:
Although a doctor by training, Asimov became a writer.
简化副词从句
观察以上三种情形,可以作一归纳:副词从句的连接词不同于 名词从句或形容词从句,是有意义的连接词,简化时常要留下来。 一旦留下连接词,那么它是由副词从句简化而成这一点就十分明 显。所以,拿掉主语与be动词后,不论什么词类的补i 一名词、 形容词、介系词短语一一都可以留下来。不过有两点需要注意: 如果连接词是before与aher之类,简化后成为介系词,后面只能 接名词类。另外,表示原因的连接词because与sine:,简化后通常 不能原样留下来,要改成because of, as a result of之类的介系词。 做法请看下面说明。
改为介系词短语
副词从句的连接词有表达某种逻辑关系的意义。简化时有一种 特别的做法,就是把连接词改为意义近似的介系词,整个从句简化 为名词后,作为介系词的宾语。
When she arrived at the party, she found all the people gone. 副词从句
(她到达舞会场地时,发现人都走光了。)
与连接词when近似的介系词有on和upon。上面的句子可以 改写为:
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Upon arriving at the party, she found all the people gone. 介系词短语
因为介系词后面只有一个宾语的空间,所以句型要大幅精简, 所有重复、空洞的字眼都要删去,有意义的部分则尽量保留下来。 通常可以把动词改成动名词(加-ing),如上例的方式处理。不过 也可以这样修改:
Upon her arrival at the party, she found all the people gone. 介系词短语
动词arrive直接改成名词arrival,符合词类要求而意思不变。 下面的例子就有些不同:
When she completed the Droiect, she was promoted.
副词从句
(她完成了这项计划,就被提升了。)
同样的,副词从句可以改写为介系词加动名词。
Upon completing the project, she was promoted. 介系词短语
可是动词complete如改成名词completion,就会有问题:
Upon completion the project, she was promoted.(误)

错误在于complete的后面有宾语the project0 一旦变成名词的 completion,原来的宾语就无所归依,所以要再加介系词of来处理:
Upon coiooletion of the Droject: she was promoted. 介系词短语
再看一个例子:
The construction work was delayed because it had been raining. 副词从句
(因为一直下雨,建筑工程就耽搁了。)
上例中副词从句的连接词可以改为介系词because of,成为:
The construction work was delayed because of rain.
介系词短语
副词从句中的虚主语it,以及动词had been都可以省略,有意 义的只有rain 一词要留下来。再看这个例子:
Althought he opposed it, the plan was carried out.
副词从句
(虽然他反对,这个计划还是施行了。)
例句中连接词although和介系词despite或in spite of意思接近, 可以改为:

介系词短i吾

副词从句中的宾语it,其内容与主要从句重复,是多余的字眼。 Although改为介系词Despite后,只能接一个宾语,里面要放下he opposed这个部分的概念,于是将词类变化为his opposition□再看 下例:
【f there should be a fire, the sprinkler will be started.
副词从句
(万一失火,洒水器会开动。)
例句中的连接词if和介系词in case of近似。改写后,副词从 句中的there should be这几个没有内容的词都要省略,只要把有意 义的fire一词放进去就好:
In case of a fire, the sprinkler will be started.
介系词短语
副词从句改写为介系词短语,是大幅度的简化。许多连接词都 找得到近似的介系词。然而,改过之后,只剩下一个名词的空间来 装下整个从句的内容,所以要大量精简。装不下时就不要这样简 化,•或者另辟蹊径。例如:
Because the exam js only a week away, I have no time to waste.
(副词从句) SV c
(因为离考试只剩一个星期了,我不能再浪费时间。)
这个副词从句的主语the exam和主要从句主语I不同,不易简 化,需改成介系词短语:
With the exam only a week away. I have no time to waste. 介系词 o c
连接词because改成介系词witho原来的主语the exam作它的 宾语。be动词省略后,主语补语only a week away就成了宾语补语, 完成了简化的工作。
结语
简化从句这个较庞大的概念,至此可告一段落。这个非常重要 的观念,对于认识与写作复杂的句型有极大的帮助。为了消化这个 观念,本书拟在下一章采用sentence-combining的方式,与读者共 同将若干个单句组合成复合句,再进一步简化到只剩一个完整的从 句。这样做一方面可以复习语法句型观念,一方面也是英语写作的 最佳练习。读者亲自练习一下,应当会有更深一层的体验。
FTl C C
Test ..20
练习
将下列各句中的副词从句(即画底线部分)改写为简化从句:
1.After he was told to report to his supervisor, the clerk left in a hurry.
2.Although he was ordered to leave, the soldier did not move an inch.
3.The plan must be modified before it is put into effect.
4.Because it had been bombed twice in the previous week, the
village was a total wreck.
5.When all things are considered. I cannot truly say that this was
an accident.
6.When the job was done, the secretary went home.
7.He took on two extra jobs so that he could Wed his family.
8.If you are in doubt, you should look up the word in the dictionary.
9.Because pork is so expensive. Pm buying beef instead.
10.When we consider his handicap、he has done very well indeed.
练习二
请选出最适当的答案填入空格内,以使句子完整。

  1. not a big star, the actor played in hundreds of films.

(A)Although

(B)He was

(C)Because

(D)Despite

2.Eisenhauer was president of Columbia University President of the USA.

(A)before he becomes

(B)before becoming

(C)before

(D)before became

3.Gold remains stable even _ to extremely high temperatures.

(A)when is heated

(B)it is heated

(C)when to heat

(D)when heated

  1. , the stock market crashed.

(A)With investor confidence gone

(B)When investor confidence gone

(C)When investors lose confidence

(D)With investors lost con fidence

5.A monkey’s brain is small with the human brain.

(A)when they are com pared

(B)when compare

(C)compared

(D)to compare them

6.Picasso did many of his abstract paintings living in Paris.

(A)that he was

(B)during

(C)while

(D)and

  1. at correct angles, diamonds reflect light brilliantly.

(A)When carved

(B)If it is carved

(C)Carving

(D)If carving

  1. , the children gradually learned to be independent.

(A)Because their father gone

(B)Their father was gone

(C)Due to their father was gone

(D)With their father gone

9.She broke into tears the news.

(A)upon hearing

(B)because hearing

(C)when heard

(D)when she hears

  1. the truth, I know nothing about it.

(A)To tell you

(B)Telling you

(C)I tell you

(D)I told you

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练习一
1.(Having been) told to report to his supervisor, the clerk left in a hurry.
2.Although ordered to leave, the soldier did not move an inch.
3.The plan must be modified before being Dut into effect.
4.(Having been) bombed twice in the previous week, the village was a total wreck.
5.All thin費 considered, I cannot truly say that this was an accident.
6.The job done, the secretary went home.
7.He took on two extra jobs (so as) to feed his family.
8.If in doubt、you should look up the word in the dictionary.
9.With pork so expensive、I’m buying beef instead.
或 Pork being so expensive. I’m buying beef instead.
10.Considering his handicap, he has done very well indeed.
练习二
1.(A)
副词从句 Although he was not a big star 的简化。
2.(B)
副词从句 before he became President of the USA 的简化。
3.(D)
副词从句 even when it is heated…的简化。
4.(A)
副词从句 Because investor confidence was gone 简化成介系 词短语。
5.(C)
副词从句when it is compared…的简化。
6.(C)
副词从句while he was living…的简化。
7.(A)
副词从句When they are carved…的简化。
8.(D)
副词从句Because their father was gone简化为介系词短语。
9.(A)
副词从句as soon as she heard the news简化为介系词短语。
10.(A)
副词从句 If I can tell you the truth 的简化。 .