git for-each-ref [–count=<count>] [–shell|–perl|–python|–tcl]
[(–sort=<key>)…] [–format=<format>] [<pattern>…]

[–points-at <object>] [(–merged | –no-merged) [<object>]]

[–contains [<object>]] [–no-contains [<object>]]


Iterate over all refs that match <pattern> and show them according to the given <format>, after sorting them

according to the given set of <key>. If <count> is given, stop after showing that many refs. The interpolated

values in <format> can optionally be quoted as string literals in the specified host language allowing their

direct evaluation in that language.


By default the command shows all refs that match <pattern>. This option makes it stop after showing that

many refs.

A field name to sort on. Prefix – to sort in descending order of the value. When unspecified, refname is

used. You may use the –sort=<key> option multiple times, in which case the last key becomes the primary


A string that interpolates %(fieldname) from a ref being shown and the object it points at. If fieldname

is prefixed with an asterisk (*) and the ref points at a tag object, use the value for the field in the

object which the tag object refers to (instead of the field in the tag object). When unspecified,

<format> defaults to %(objectname) SPC %(objecttype) TAB %(refname). It also interpolates %% to %, and

%xx where xx are hex digits interpolates to character with hex code xx; for example %00 interpolates to

\0 (NUL), %09 to \t (TAB) and %0a to \n (LF).

If one or more patterns are given, only refs are shown that match against at least one pattern, either

using fnmatch(3) or literally, in the latter case matching completely or from the beginning up to a


–shell, –perl, –python, –tcl
If given, strings that substitute %(fieldname) placeholders are quoted as string literals suitable for

the specified host language. This is meant to produce a scriptlet that can directly be `eval`ed.

–points-at <object>
Only list refs which points at the given object.

–merged [<object>]
Only list refs whose tips are reachable from the specified commit (HEAD if not specified), incompatible

with –no-merged.

–no-merged [<object>]
Only list refs whose tips are not reachable from the specified commit (HEAD if not specified),

incompatible with –merged.

–contains [<object>]
Only list refs which contain the specified commit (HEAD if not specified).

–no-contains [<object>]
Only list refs which don’t contain the specified commit (HEAD if not specified).

Sorting and filtering refs are case insensitive.


Various values from structured fields in referenced objects can be used to interpolate into the resulting

output, or as sort keys.

For all objects, the following names can be used:

The name of the ref (the part after $GIT_DIR/). For a non-ambiguous short name of the ref append :short.

The option core.warnAmbiguousRefs is used to select the strict abbreviation mode. If lstrip=<N>

(rstrip=<N>) is appended, strips <N> slash-separated path components from the front (back) of the refname

(e.g. %(refname:lstrip=2) turns refs/tags/foo into foo and %(refname:rstrip=2) turns refs/tags/foo into

refs). If <N> is a negative number, strip as many path components as necessary from the specified end to

leave -<N> path components (e.g. %(refname:lstrip=-2) turns refs/tags/foo into tags/foo and

%(refname:rstrip=-1) turns refs/tags/foo into refs). When the ref does not have enough components, the

result becomes an empty string if stripping with positive <N>, or it becomes the full refname if

stripping with negative <N>. Neither is an error.

strip can be used as a synomym to lstrip.

The type of the object (blob, tree, commit, tag).

The size of the object (the same as git cat-file -s reports).

The object name (aka SHA-1). For a non-ambiguous abbreviation of the object name append :short. For an

abbreviation of the object name with desired length append :short=<length>, where the minimum length is

MINIMUM_ABBREV. The length may be exceeded to ensure unique object names.

The name of a local ref which can be considered “upstream” from the displayed ref. Respects :short,

:lstrip and :rstrip in the same way as refname above. Additionally respects :track to show “[ahead N,

behind M]” and :trackshort to show the terse version: “>” (ahead), “<” (behind), “<>” (ahead and behind),

or “=” (in sync). :track also prints “[gone]” whenever unknown upstream ref is encountered. Append

:track,nobracket to show tracking information without brackets (i.e “ahead N, behind M”). Has no effect

if the ref does not have tracking information associated with it. All the options apart from nobracket

are mutually exclusive, but if used together the last option is selected.

The name of a local ref which represents the @{push} location for the displayed ref. Respects :short,

:lstrip, :rstrip, :track, and :trackshort options as upstream does. Produces an empty string if no

@{push} ref is configured.

* if HEAD matches current ref (the checked out branch), ‘ ‘ otherwise.

Change output color. Followed by :<colorname>, where color names are described under Values in the

“CONFIGURATION FILE” section of git-config(1). For example, %(color:bold red).

Left-, middle-, or right-align the content between %(align:…) and %(end). The “align:” is followed by

width=<width> and position=<position> in any order separated by a comma, where the <position> is either

left, right or middle, default being left and <width> is the total length of the content with alignment.

For brevity, the “width=” and/or “position=” prefixes may be omitted, and bare <width> and <position>

used instead. For instance, %(align:<width>,<position>). If the contents length is more than the width

then no alignment is performed. If used with –quote everything in between %(align:…) and %(end) is

quoted, but if nested then only the topmost level performs quoting.

Used as %(if)…%(then)…%(end) or %(if)…%(then)…%(else)…%(end). If there is an atom with value or

string literal after the %(if) then everything after the %(then) is printed, else if the %(else) atom is

used, then everything after %(else) is printed. We ignore space when evaluating the string before

%(then), this is useful when we use the %(HEAD) atom which prints either “*” or ” ” and we want to apply

the if condition only on the HEAD ref. Append “:equals=<string>” or “:notequals=<string>” to compare the

value between the %(if:…) and %(then) atoms with the given string.

The ref which the given symbolic ref refers to. If not a symbolic ref, nothing is printed. Respects the

:short, :lstrip and :rstrip options in the same way as refname above.

In addition to the above, for commit and tag objects, the header field names (tree, parent, object, type, and

tag) can be used to specify the value in the header field.

For commit and tag objects, the special creatordate and creator fields will correspond to the appropriate

date or name-email-date tuple from the committer or tagger fields depending on the object type. These are

intended for working on a mix of annotated and lightweight tags.

Fields that have name-email-date tuple as its value (author, committer, and tagger) can be suffixed with

name, email, and date to extract the named component.

The complete message in a commit and tag object is contents. Its first line is contents:subject, where

subject is the concatenation of all lines of the commit message up to the first blank line. The next line is

contents:body, where body is all of the lines after the first blank line. The optional GPG signature is

contents:signature. The first N lines of the message is obtained using contents:lines=N. Additionally, the

trailers as interpreted by git-interpret-trailers(1) are obtained as contents:trailers.

For sorting purposes, fields with numeric values sort in numeric order (objectsize, authordate,

committerdate, creatordate, taggerdate). All other fields are used to sort in their byte-value order.

There is also an option to sort by versions, this can be done by using the fieldname version:refname or its

alias v:refname.

In any case, a field name that refers to a field inapplicable to the object referred by the ref does not

cause an error. It returns an empty string instead.

As a special case for the date-type fields, you may specify a format for the date by adding : followed by

date format name (see the values the –date option to git-rev-list(1) takes).

Some atoms like %(align) and %(if) always require a matching %(end). We call them “opening atoms” and

sometimes denote them as %($open).

When a scripting language specific quoting is in effect, everything between a top-level opening atom and its

matching %(end) is evaluated according to the semantics of the opening atom and only its result from the

top-level is quoted.




git for-each-ref --count=3 --sort='-*authordate' \
--format='From: %(*authorname) %(*authoremail)
Subject: %(*subject)
Date: %(*authordate)
Ref: %(*refname)

' 'refs/tags'

下面的例子显示了对输出结果使用shell eval,展示了–shell选项的使用,列出所有头的前缀:


git for-each-ref --shell --format="ref=%(refname)" refs/heads | \
while read entry
	   eval "$entry"
	   echo `dirname $ref`





	   if test "z$t" = z
			   # could be a lightweight tag
			   kind="Lightweight tag"
	   echo "$kind $T points at a $t object $o"
	   if test "z$t" = zcommit
			   echo "The commit was authored by $n $e
at $d, and titled


Its message reads as:
			   echo "$b" | sed -e "s/^/    /"

eval=`git for-each-ref --shell --format="$fmt" \
	   --sort='*objecttype' \
	   --sort=-taggerdate \
eval "$eval"



git for-each-ref --format="%(if)%(HEAD)%(then)* %(else)  %(end)%(refname:short)" refs/heads/



git for-each-ref --format="%(refname)%(if)%(authorname)%(then) Authored by: %(authorname)%(end)"

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