「FVWM」 – 控制Window的样式

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出于可读性考虑,本节中的命令不按字母顺序排序。 Style命令的描述可以在本节末尾找到。

FocusStyle stylename options

与Style命令完全相同,但只接受以“FP”开头的焦点策略相关的样式。可以删除前缀,但需要花费一点时间。FocusStyle旨在使配置文件更具可读性。比如:

FocusStyle * EnterToFocus, !LeaveToUnfocus
Style * FPEnterToFocus, !FPLeaveToUnfocus

上述两行配置是等价的。

DestroyStyle style

删除名为style的样式。更改立即生效。 请注意,style不是通配符搜索字符串,而是区分大小写的字符串,应与原始Style命令指定的style完全匹配。

删除带星号(”*”)的样式名是可执行的,但不是推荐的做法。 例如:

DestroyStyle Application*

这将删除名为“Application*”的样式的所有设置,而不是所有以“Application”开头的样式。

WindowStyle options

在所选窗口上设置属性(样式)。选项与Style命令完全相同。

DestroyWindowStyle

删除所选窗口上由WindowStyle命令设置的样式。更改立即生效。

UpdateStyles

所有窗口的样式和外观的所有待定的更新都会立即应用。 例如,如果在FVWM函数内触发的Style、WindowStyle、TitleStyle命令。

Style stylename options …

Style,该命令用于将窗口的属性设置为默认值以外的值,或者设置窗口管理器的默认样式。

stylename,可以是窗口的名称、类、可见名、资源字符串。它可能包含通配符’*’和’?’,它们以通常的Unix文件名方式匹配(通配符的形式)。单个Style命令中的多个样式选项从左到右读取,就好像它们是在单独的命令中一个接一个地发出的一样。 给定样式始终覆盖之前指定的所有冲突样式,即最后指定的样式优先级更高。

注意:没有名称的窗口(WM_NAME)的名称为“Untitled”;没有类的窗口(WM_CLASS,res_class)被赋予“NoClass”类;没有资源字符串的窗口(WM_CLASS,res_name)被赋予资源名“NoResource”。

如果窗口设置了资源名“fvwmstyle”,则在选择样式时,除了任何窗口名称外,还会使用该资源的值。

options,以逗号分隔的样式列表,其中包含一个或多个以下样式关键字。每组样式名称用斜杠(’/’)分隔,通常组内样式之间是互斥的。这些组中的最后一种样式是默认样式:

BorderWidth, HandleWidth, !Icon / Icon, MiniIcon, IconBox, IconGrid, IconFill, IconSize, !Title / Title, TitleAtBottom / TitleAtLeft / TitleAtRight / TitleAtTop, LeftTitleRotatedCW / LeftTitleRotatedCCW, RightTitleRotatedCCW / RightTitleRotatedCW, TopTitleRotated / TopTitleNotRotated, BottomTitleRotated / BottomTitleNotRotated, !UseTitleDecorRotation / UseTitleDecorRotation, StippledTitle / !StippledTitle, StippledIconTitle / !StippledIconTitle, IndexedWindowName / ExactWindowName, IndexedIconName / ExactIconName, TitleFormat / IconTitleFormat / !Borders / Borders, !Handles / Handles, WindowListSkip / WindowListHit, CirculateSkip / CirculateHit, CirculateSkipShaded / CirculateHitShaded, CirculateSkipIcon / CirculateHitIcon, Layer, StaysOnTop / StaysOnBottom / StaysPut, Sticky / Slippery, StickyAcrossPages / !StickyAcrossPages, StickyAcrossDesks / !StickyAcrossDesks, !StickyStippledTitle / StickyStippledTitle, !StickyStippledIconTitle / StickyStippledIconTitle, StartIconic / StartNormal, Color, ForeColor, BackColor, Colorset, HilightFore, HilightBack, HilightColorset, BorderColorset, HilightBorderColorset, IconTitleColorset, HilightIconTitleColorset, IconBackgroundColorset, IconTitleRelief, IconBackgroundRelief, IconBackgroundPadding, Font, IconFont, StartsOnDesk / StartsOnPage / StartsAnyWhere, StartsOnScreen, StartShaded / !StartShaded, ManualPlacementHonorsStartsOnPage / ManualPlacementIgnoresStartsOnPage, CaptureHonorsStartsOnPage / CaptureIgnoresStartsOnPage, RecaptureHonorsStartsOnPage / RecaptureIgnoresStartsOnPage, StartsOnPageIncludesTransients / StartsOnPageIgnoresTransients, IconTitle / !IconTitle, MwmButtons / FvwmButtons, MwmBorder / FvwmBorder, MwmDecor / !MwmDecor, MwmFunctions / !MwmFunctions, HintOverride / !HintOverride, !Button / Button, ResizeHintOverride / !ResizeHintOverride, OLDecor / !OLDecor, GNOMEUseHints / GNOMEIgnoreHints, StickyIcon / SlipperyIcon, StickyAcrossPagesIcon / !StickyAcrossPagesIcon, StickyAcrossDesksIcon / !StickyAcrossDesksIcon, ManualPlacement / CascadePlacement / MinOverlapPlacement / MinOverlapPercentPlacement / TileManualPlacement / TileCascadePlacement / PositionPlacement, MinOverlapPlacementPenalties, MinOverlapPercentPlacementPenalties, DecorateTransient / NakedTransient, DontRaiseTransient / RaiseTransient, DontLowerTransient / LowerTransient, DontStackTransientParent / StackTransientParent, SkipMapping / ShowMapping, ScatterWindowGroups / KeepWindowGroupsOnDesk, UseDecor, UseStyle, !UsePPosition / NoPPosition / UsePPosition, !UseUSPosition, NoUSPosition / UseUSPosition, !UseTransientPPosition, NoTransientPPosition / UseTransientPPosition, !UseTransientUSPosition / NoTransientUSPosition / UseTransientUSPosition, !UseIconPosition / NoIconPosition / UseIconPosition, Lenience / !Lenience, ClickToFocus / SloppyFocus / MouseFocus|FocusFollowsMouse / NeverFocus, ClickToFocusPassesClickOff / ClickToFocusPassesClick, ClickToFocusRaisesOff / ClickToFocusRaises, MouseFocusClickRaises / MouseFocusClickRaisesOff, GrabFocus / GrabFocusOff, GrabFocusTransientOff / GrabFocusTransient, FPFocusClickButtons, FPFocusClickModifiers, !FPSortWindowlistByFocus / FPSortWindowlistByFocus, FPClickRaisesFocused / !FPClickRaisesFocused, FPClickDecorRaisesFocused / !FPClickDecorRaisesFocused, FPClickIconRaisesFocused / !FPClickIconRaisesFocused, !FPClickRaisesUnfocused / FPClickRaisesUnfocused, FPClickDecorRaisesUnfocused / !FPClickDecorRaisesUnfocused, FPClickIconRaisesUnfocused / !FPClickIconRaisesUnfocused, FPClickToFocus / !FPClickToFocus, FPClickDecorToFocus / !FPClickDecorToFocus, FPClickIconToFocus / !FPClickIconToFocus, !FPEnterToFocus / FPEnterToFocus, !FPLeaveToUnfocus / FPLeaveToUnfocus, !FPFocusByProgram / FPFocusByProgram, !FPFocusByFunction / FPFocusByFunction, FPFocusByFunctionWarpPointer / !FPFocusByFunctionWarpPointer, FPLenient / !FPLenient, !FPPassFocusClick / FPPassFocusClick, !FPPassRaiseClick / FPPassRaiseClick, FPIgnoreFocusClickMotion / !FPIgnoreFocusClickMotion, FPIgnoreRaiseClickMotion / !FPIgnoreRaiseClickMotion, !FPAllowFocusClickFunction / FPAllowFocusClickFunction, !FPAllowRaiseClickFunction / FPAllowRaiseClickFunction, FPGrabFocus / !FPGrabFocus, !FPGrabFocusTransient / FPGrabFocusTransient, FPOverrideGrabFocus / !FPOverrideGrabFocus, FPReleaseFocus / !FPReleaseFocus, !FPReleaseFocusTransient / FPReleaseFocusTransient, FPOverrideReleaseFocus / !FPOverrideReleaseFocus, StartsLowered / StartsRaised, IgnoreRestack / AllowRestack, FixedPosition / VariablePosition, FixedUSPosition / VariableUSPosition, FixedPPosition / VariablePPosition, FixedSize / VariableSize, FixedUSSize / VariableUSSize, FixedPSize / VariablePSize, !Closable / Closable, !Iconifiable / Iconifiable, !Maximizable / Maximizable, !AllowMaximizeFixedSize / AllowMaximizeFixedSize, IconOverride / NoIconOverride / NoActiveIconOverride, DepressableBorder / FirmBorder, MinWindowSize, MaxWindowSize, IconifyWindowGroups / IconifyWindowGroupsOff, ResizeOpaque / ResizeOutline, BackingStore / BackingStoreOff / BackingStoreWindowDefault, Opacity / ParentalRelativity, SaveUnder / SaveUnderOff, WindowShadeShrinks / WindowShadeScrolls, WindowShadeSteps, WindowShadeAlwaysLazy / WindowShadeBusy / WindowShadeLazy, EWMHDonateIcon / EWMHDontDonateIcon, EWMHDonateMiniIcon / EWMHDontDonateMiniIcon, EWMHMiniIconOverride / EWMHNoMiniIconOverride, EWMHUseStackingOrderHints / EWMHIgnoreStackingOrderHints, EWMHIgnoreStateHints / EWMHUseStateHints, EWMHIgnoreStrutHints / EWMHUseStrutHints, EWMHIgnoreWindowType / !EWMHIgnoreWindowType, EWMHMaximizeIgnoreWorkingArea / EWMHMaximizeUseWorkingArea / EWMHMaximizeUseDynamicWorkingArea, EWMHPlacementIgnoreWorkingArea / EWMHPlacementUseWorkingArea / EWMHPlacementUseDynamicWorkingArea, MoveByProgramMethod, Unmanaged, State, SnapGrid, SnapAttraction, EdgeMoveDelay, EdgeResizeDelay, EdgeMoveResistance, InitialMapCommand

在上面的列表中,一些选项被列为style-option/opposite-style-option的形式。如果要更改fvwm默认行为,拥有opposite-style-option的条目描述了fvwm默认行为,可以使用它。

Focus policy

ClickToFocus instructs fvwm to give the focus to a window when it is clicked in. The default

MouseFocus (or its alias FocusFollowsMouse) tells fvwm to give a window the focus as soon as

the pointer enters the window, and take it away when the pointer leaves the window.

SloppyFocus is similar, but doesn’t give up the focus if the pointer leaves the window to pass

over the root window or a ClickToFocus window (unless you click on it, that is), which makes it

possible to move the mouse out of the way without losing focus. A window with the style

NeverFocus never receives the focus. This is useful for modules like FvwmButtons. for

example. Note: Once any of the “FP…” styles has been used, the defaults that come with the

basic focus policies are not restored when the latter are used again. For example, once

!FPGrabFocus has been used, using ClickToFocus does not restore FPGrabFocus.

The focus model can be augmented with several additional options. In fvwm-2.5.3 and later,

there are a large number of advanced options beginning with “FP” or “!FP”. These options shall

replace the older options one day and are described first. Using any of these new options may

limit compatibility with older releases. In general, options beginning with “FP” turn a

feature on, while those beginning with “!FP” turn it off.

Focusing the window

With FPEnterToFocus, when the pointer enters a window it receives focus.

With FPLeaveToUnfocus a window loses focus when the pointer leaves it.

With FPClickToFocus, FPClickDecorToFocus or FPClickIconToFocus, a window receives focus when

the inside of the window or the decorations or its icon is clicked.

The FPFocusByProgram style allows windows to take the focus themselves.

The !FPFocusByFunction style forbids that a window receives the focus via the Focus and

FlipFocus commands.

The FPFocusByFunctionWarpPointer style controls if the pointer is warped to a selected window

when the Focus command is used.

FPLenient allows focus on windows that do not want it, like FvwmPager or xclock.

The FPFocusClickButtons style takes a list of mouse buttons that can be clicked to focus or

raise a window when the appropriate style is used. The default is to use the first three

buttons (“123”).

The FPFocusClickModifiers style takes a list of modifier keys just like the Key command. The

exact combination of modifier keys must be pressed for the click to focus or raise a window to

work. The default is to use no modifiers (“N”).

With the FPPassFocusClick style, the click that was used to focus a window is passed to the

application.

With the FPAllowFocusClickFunction style, the click that was used to focus a window can also

trigger a normal action that was bound to the window with the Mouse command).

If the FPIgnoreFocusClickMotion style is used, clicking in a window and then dragging the

pointer with the button held down does not count as the click to focus the window. Instead,

the application processes these events normally. This is useful to select text in a terminal

window with the mouse without raising the window. However, mouse bindings on the client window

are not guaranteed to work anymore (see Mouse command). This style forces the initial click to

be passed to the application. The distance that the pointer must be moved to trigger this is

controlled by the MoveThreshold command.

The FPSortWindowlistByFocus and !FPSortWindowlistByFocus styles control whether the internal

window list is sorted in the order the windows were focused or in the order they were created.

The latter is the default for ClickToFocus and SloppyFocus.

Clicking the window to raise

The styles FPClickRaisesFocused, FPClickDecorRaisesFocused and FPClickIconRaisesFocused allow

one to raise the window when the interior or the decorations or the icon of the window is

clicked while the window is already focused.

The styles FPClickRaisesUnfocused, FPClickDecorRaisesUnfocused and FPClickIconRaisesUnfocused

allow one to raise the window when the interior or the decorations or the icon of the window is

clicked while the window is not yet focused.

With the FPPassRaiseClick style, the click that was used to raise the window is passed to the

application.

With the FPAllowRaiseClickFunction style, the click that was used to raise the window can also

trigger a normal action that was bound to the window with the Mouse command.

If the FPIgnoreRaiseClickMotion style is used, clicking in a window and then dragging the

pointer with the button held down does not count as the click to raise the window. Instead,

the application processes these events normally. This is useful to select text in a terminal

window with the mouse without raising the window. However, mouse bindings on the client window

are not guaranteed to work anymore (see Mouse command. Note that this style forces that the

initial click is passed to the application. The distance that the pointer must be moved to

trigger this is controlled by the MoveThreshold command.

Grabbing the focus when a new window is created

New normal or transient windows with the FPGrabFocus or FPGrabFocusTransient style

automatically receive the focus when they are created. FPGrabFocus is the default for windows

with the ClickToFocus style. Note that even if these styles are disabled, the application may

take the focus itself. Fvwm can not prevent this.

The OverrideGrabFocus style instructs fvwm to never take away the focus from such a window via

the GrabFocus or GrabFocusTransient styles. This can be useful if you like to have transient

windows receive the focus immediately, for example in a web browser, but not while you are

working in a terminal window or a text processor.

The above three styles are accompanied by FPReleaseFocus, FPReleaseFocusTransient and

FPOverrideReleaseFocus. These control if the focus is returned to another window when the

window is closed. Otherwise no window or the window under the pointer receives the focus.

ClickToFocusPassesClickOff and ClickToFocusPassesClick controls whether a mouse click to focus

a window is sent to the application or not. Similarly,

ClickToFocusRaisesOff/MouseFocusClickRaisesOff and ClickToFocusRaises/MouseFocusClickRaises

control if the window is raised (but depending on the focus model).

Note: in fvwm versions prior to 2.5.3, the “Click…” options applied only to windows with

ClickToFocus while the “Mouse…” options applied to windows with a different focus policy.

This is no longer the case.

The old GrabFocus style is equivalent to using FPGrabFocus + FPReleaseFocus.

The old GrabFocusTransient style is equivalent to using FPGrabFocusTransient +

FPReleaseFocusTransient.

Lenience is equivalent to the new style FPLenient.

Window title

The Title and !Title options determine if the window has a title-bar or not. By default all

windows have a title-bar. NoTitle is equivalent to !Title but is deprecated.

Windows with the TitleAtBottom, TitleAtLeft or TitleAtRight style have a title-bar below, to

the left or to the right of the window instead of above as usual. The TitleAtTop style

restores the default placement. Even if the window has the !Title style set, this affects the

WindowShade command. Please check the WindowShade command for interactions between that

command and these styles. Titles on the left or right side of the windows are augmented by the

following styles:

Normally, the text in titles on the left side of a window is rotated counterclockwise by 90

degrees from the normal upright position and 90 degrees clockwise for titles on the right side.

It can also be rotated in the opposite directions with LeftTitleRotatedCW if TitleAtLeft is

used, and with RightTitleRotatedCCW if TitleAtRight is used. The defaults can be restored with

LeftTitleRotatedCCW and RightTitleRotatedCW. A normal horizontal text may be rotated as well

with TopTitleRotated if TitleAtTop is used, and with BottomTitleRotated if TitleAtBottom is

used. The defaults can be restored with TopTitleNotRotated and BottomTitleNotRotated.

By default the title bar decoration defined using the TitleStyle command is rotated following

the title text rotation (see the previous paragraph). This can be disabled by using the

!UseTitleDecorRotation style. UseTitleDecorRotation reverts back to the default.

With the StippledTitle style, titles are drawn with the same effect that is usually reserved

for windows with the Sticky, StickyAcrossPages or StickyAcrossDesks style. !StippledTitle

reverts back to normal titles. StippledTitleOff is equivalent to !StippledTitle but is

deprecated.

Color takes two arguments. The first is the window-label text color and the second is the

window decorations normal background color. The two colors are separated with a slash. If the

use of a slash causes problems then the separate ForeColor and BackColor options can be used.

Colorset takes the colorset number as its sole argument and overrides the colors set by Color.

Instead, the corresponding colors from the given colorset are used. Note that all other

features of a colorset are not used. Use the Colorset decoration style in the TitleStyle and

ButtonStyle command for that. To stop using the colorset, the colorset number is omitted.

The HilightFore, HilightBack and HilightColorset style options work exactly like ForeColor,

BackColor and Colorset but are used only if the window has the focus. These styles replace the

old commands HilightColor and HilightColorset.

BorderColorset takes the colorset number as its sole argument and overrides the colors set by

Color or Colorset. for the window border. To stop using a colorset, the argument is omitted.

The HilightBorderColorset style option works similarly to BorderColorset but is used when the

window has the focus.

!IconTitle disables displaying icon labels while the opposite style IconTitle enables icon

labels (default behaviour). NoIconTitle is equivalent to !IconTitle but is deprecated.

IconTitleColorset takes the colorset number as its sole argument and overrides the colors set

by Color or Colorset. To stop using this colorset, the argument is omitted.

HilightIconTitleColorset takes the colorset number as its sole argument and overrides the

colors set by HilightColor or HilightColorset. To stop using this colorset, the argument is

omitted.

IconBackgroundColorset takes the colorset number as its sole argument and uses it to set a

background for the icon picture. By default the icon picture is not drawn onto a background

image. To restore the default, the argument is omitted.

IconTitleRelief takes one numeric argument that may be between -50 and +50 pixels and defines

the thickness of the 3D relief drawn around the icon title. With negative values the icon

title gets a pressed in look. The default is 2 and it is restored if the argument is omitted.

IconBackgroundRelief takes one numeric argument that may be between -50 and +50 pixels and

defines the thickness of the 3D relief drawn around the icon picture background (if any). With

negative values the icon background gets a pressed in look. The default is 2 and it is

restored if the argument is omitted.

IconBackgroundPadding takes one numeric argument that may be between 0 and 50 pixels and

defines the amount of free space between the relief of the icon background picture (if any) and

the icon picture. The default is 2 and it is restored if the argument is omitted.

The Font and IconFont options take the name of a font as their sole argument. This font is

used in the window or icon title. By default the font given in the DefaultFont command is

used. To revert back to the default, use the style without the name argument. These styles

replace the older WindowFont and IconFont commands.

The deprecated IndexedWindowName style causes fvwm to use window titles in the form

name (i)

where name is the exact window name and i is an integer which represents the i th window with

name as window name. This has been replaced with:

TitleFormat %n (%t)

ExactWindowName restores the default which is to use the exact window name. Deprecated in

favour of:

TitleFormat %n

IndexedIconName and ExactIconName work the same as IndexedWindowName and ExactWindowName styles

but for the icon titles. Both are deprecated in favour of:

IconTitleFormat %n (%t)

IconTitleFormat %n

TitleFormat describes what the visible name of a window should look like, with the following

placeholders being valid:

%n
Insert the window’s name.

%i
Insert the window’s icon name.

%c
Insert the window’s class name.

%r
Insert the window’s resource name.

%t
Insert the window count.

%I
Insert the window ID.

%%
Insert a literal ‘%’ character.

Any amount of whitespace may be used, along with other characters to make up the string — but

a valid TitleFormat string must contain at least one of the placeholders mentioned. No quote

stripping is performed on the string, so for example the following is printed verbatim:

TitleFormat ” %n ” -> [%t] -> [%c]

Note: It’s perfectly possible to use a TitleFormat which can result in wiping out the visible

title altogether. For example:

TitleFormat %z

Simply because the placeholder ‘%z’ isn’t supported. This is not a bug but rather a facet of

how the formatting parser works.

IconTitleFormat describes what the visible icon name of a window should look like, with the

options being the same as TitleFormat.

Title buttons

Button and !Button take a numeric argument which is the number of the title-bar button which is

to be shown or omitted. NoButton is equivalent to !Button but is deprecated.

MwmButtons makes the Maximize button look pressed-in when the window is maximized. See the

MwmDecorMax flag in ButtonStyle for more information. To switch this style off again, use the

FvwmButtons style.

Borders

!Borders suppresses the window border (but not the title) completely. The Borders style

enables them again. Without borders, all other styles affecting window borders are

meaningless.

MwmBorder makes the 3D bevel more closely match Mwm’s. FvwmBorder turns off the previous

option.

With the !Handles style, the window does not get the handles in the window corners that are

commonly used to resize it. With !Handles, the width from the BorderWidth style is used. By

default, or if Handles is specified, the width from the HandleWidth style is used. NoHandles

is equivalent to !Handles but is deprecated.

HandleWidth takes a numeric argument which is the width of the border to place the window if it

does have resize-handles. Using HandleWidth without an argument restores the default.

BorderWidth takes a numeric argument which is the width of the border to place the window if it

does not have resize-handles. It is used only if the !Handles style is specified too. Using

BorderWidth without an argument restores the default.

DepressableBorder makes the border parts of the window decoration look sunken in when a button

is pressed over them. This can be disabled again with the FirmBorder style.

Icons, shading, maximizing, movement, resizing

Icon takes an (optional) unquoted string argument which is the icon bitmap or pixmap to use.

Icons specified this way override pixmap icons, but not icon windows or the ewmh icon, provided

by the client in the application (with the WM_HINTS property or with the ewmh _NET_WM_ICON

property). The IconOverride style changes the behavior to override any client-provided icons;

the NoIconOverride style changes the behavior to not override any client-provided icons; the

default overriding behavior can be activated with the NoActiveIconOverride style. With this

style, fvwm uses application provided icons if the icon is changed but uses the icon provided

in the configuration file until then.

There is one exception to these rules, namely

Style * Icon unknown.xpm

doesn’t force the unknown.xpm icon on every window, it just sets the default icon like the

DefaultIcon command. If you really want all windows to have the same icon, you can use

Style Icon unknown.xpm**

If the NoIcon attribute is set then the specified window simply disappears when it is

iconified. The window can be recovered through the window-list. If Icon is set without an

argument then the NoIcon attribute is cleared but no icon is specified. An example which

allows only the FvwmPager module icon to exist:

Style * NoIcon

Style FvwmPager Icon

IconBox takes no argument, four numeric arguments (plus optionally a screen specification), an

X11 geometry string or the string “none”:

IconBox [screen scr-spec] l t r b

or

IconBox geometry

Where l is the left coordinate, t is the top, r is right and b is bottom. Negative coordinates

indicate distance from the right or bottom of the screen. If the first argument is the word

screen, the scr-spec argument specifies the Xinerama screen on which the IconBox is defined.

It can be the usual screen Xinerama specification, ‘p’, ´c’, ‘g’, a screen number or the

additional ‘w’ for the screen where the window center is located. This is only useful with

multiple Xinerama screens. The “l t r b” specification is more flexible than an X11 geometry.

For example:

IconBox -80 240 -1 -1

defines a box that is 80 pixels wide from the right edge, 240 pixels down from the top, and

continues to the bottom of the screen.

Perhaps it is easier to use is an X11 geometry string though:

IconBox 1000×70-1-1

places an 1000 by 70 pixel icon box on the bottom of the screen starting in the lower right

hand corner of the screen. One way to figure out a geometry like this is to use a window that

resizes in pixel increments, for example, xv. Then resize and place the xv window where you

want the iconbox. Then use FvwmIdent to read the windows geometry. The icon box is a region

of the screen where fvwm attempts to put icons for any matching window, as long as they do not

overlap other icons. Multiple icon boxes can be defined as overflow areas. When the first

icon box is full, the second one is filled. All the icon boxes for one style must be defined

in one Style command. For example:

Style * IconBox -80 240 -1 -1, \
IconBox 1000×70-1-1

A Style command with the IconBox option replaces any icon box defined previously by another

Style command for the same style. That’s why the backslash in the previous example is

required.

Note: The geometry for the icon box command takes the additional screen specifier “@w” in case

a Xinerama setup is used. This designates the screen where the window center is located. The

additional screen specifier is not allowed anywhere else.

If you never define an icon box, or you fill all the icon boxes, fvwm has a default icon box

that covers the screen, it fills top to bottom, then left to right, and has an 80×80 pixel

grid. To disable all but the default icon box you can use IconBox without arguments in a

separate Style command. To disable all icon boxes including the default icon box, the argument

“none” can be specified.

Hint: You can auto arrange your icons in the icon box with a simple fvwm function. Put the

“DeiconifyAndRearrange” function below in your configuration file:

AddToFunc DeiconifyAndRearrange

+ C Iconify off

+ C All (CurrentPage, Iconic) PlaceAgain Icon

And then replace all places where you call the Iconify command to de-iconify an icon with a

call to the new function. For example replace

AddToFunc IconFunc

+ C Iconify off

+ M Raise

+ M Move

+ D Iconify off

Mouse 1 I A Iconify off

with

AddToFunc IconFunc

+ C DeiconifyAndRearrange

+ M Raise

+ M Move

+ D DeiconifyAndRearrange

Mouse 1 I A DeiconifyAndRearrange

IconGrid takes 2 numeric arguments greater than zero.

IconGrid x y

Icons are placed in an icon box by stepping through the icon box using the x and y values for

the icon grid, looking for a free space. The default grid is 3 by 3 pixels which gives a

tightly packed appearance. To get a more regular appearance use a grid larger than your

largest icon. Use the IconSize argument to clip or stretch an icon to a maximum size. An

IconGrid definition must follow the IconBox definition that it applies to:

Style * IconBox -80×240-1-1, IconGrid 90 90

IconFill takes 2 arguments.

IconFill Bottom Right

Icons are placed in an icon box by stepping through the icon box using these arguments to

control the direction the box is filled in. By default the direction is left to right, then

top to bottom. This would be expressed as:

IconFill left top

To fill an icon box in columns instead of rows, specify the vertical direction (top or bottom)

first. The directions can be abbreviated or spelled out as follows: “t”, “top”, “b”, “bot”,

“bottom”, “l”, “lft”, “left”, “r”, “rgt”, “right”. An IconFill definition must follow the

IconBox definition that it applies to:

Style * IconBox -80×240-1-1, IconFill b r

IconSize sets limits on the size of an icon image. Both user-provided and application-provided

icon images are affected.

IconSize [ width height [ maxwidth maxheight ] ]

All arguments are measured in pixels. When all four arguments are passed to IconSize, width

and height represent the minimum size of an icon, and maxwidth and maxheight represent the

maximum size of an icon. Icon images that are smaller than the minimum size are padded. Icon

images that are bigger than the maximum size are clipped.

If only two arguments are passed to IconSize, width and height represent the absolute size of

an icon. Icons covered by this style are padded or clipped to achieve the given size.

If no arguments are specified, the default values are used for each dimension. This

effectively places no limits on the size of an icon.

The value of “-1” can be used in place of any of the arguments to specify the default value for

that dimension.

In addition to the numeric arguments, 1 additional argument can be “Stretched”, “Adjusted”, or

“Shrunk”.

Note that module provided icon managers are not affected by this style.

MiniIcon specifies a pixmap to use as the miniature icon for the window. This miniature icon can be
drawn in a title-bar button (see ButtonStyle), and can be used by various fvwm modules (FvwmIconMan
and FvwmPager). It takes the name of a pixmap as an argument.

WindowShadeShrinks and WindowShadeScrolls control if the contents of a window that is being shaded
with the WindowShade command are scrolled (default) or if they stay in place. The shrinking mode is a
bit faster

The WindowShadeSteps option selects the number of steps for animation when shading a window with
WindowShade. It takes one number as its argument. If the number has a trailing ‘p’ it sets the
number of pixels to use as the step size instead of a fixed number of steps. 0 disables the
animation. This happens too if the argument is omitted or invalid.

The WindowShade command has two modes of operation: busy and lazy shading. Busy shading can be 50%
slower than lazy shading, but the latter can look strange under some conditions, for example, if the
window borders, buttons or the title are filled with a tiled pixmap. Also, the window handles are not
drawn in lazy mode and the border relief may only be drawn partially right before the window reaches
the shaded state or tight after leaves the unshaded state. By default, fvwm uses lazy mode if there
are no bad visual effects (not counting the window handles) and busy mode otherwise. Use the
WindowShadeAlwaysLazy or WindowShadeBusy to force using the lazy or busy mode. The default setting is
restored with WindowShadeLazy.

ResizeOpaque instructs fvwm to resize the corresponding windows with their contents visible instead of
using an outline. Since this causes the application to redraw frequently it can be quite slow and
make the window flicker excessively, depending on the amount of graphics the application redraws. The
ResizeOutline style (default) negates the ResizeOpaque style. Many applications do not like their
windows being resized opaque, e.g. XEmacs, Netscape or terminals with a pixmap background. If you do
not like the result, do not use the ResizeOpaque style for these windows. To exempt certain windows
from opaque resizing you could use these lines in your configuration file:

Style * ResizeOpaque

Style rxvt ResizeOutline

Style emacs ResizeOutline

Sticky makes the window sticky, i.e. it is always visible on each page and each desk. The opposite
style, Slippery reverts back to the default.

StickyIcon makes the window sticky when it’s iconified. It de-iconifies on top the active desktop.
SlipperyIcon reverts back to the default.

StickyAcrossPages and StickyAcrossPagesIcon work like Sticky and StickyIcon, but stick the window only
across pages, not desks while StickyAcrossDesks and StickyAcrossDesksIcon works the other way round.

Windows that have been marked as Sticky or StickyAcrossDesks or StickyAcrossPages will have stipples
drawn on the titlebar. This can be negated with the !StickyStippledTitle style. The style
StickyStippledTitle puts back the stipples where that window has also been marked as Sticky. Note
that this is the default style for Sticky windows. Sticky icons will have stipples drawn on the icon
title. This can be disabled in the same way with the !StickyStippledIconTitle style.

Windows with the StartIconic style are shown as icons initially. Note that some applications
counteract that by deiconifying themselves. The default is to not iconify windows and can be set with
the StartNormal style.

StickyIcon makes the window sticky when it’s iconified. It de-iconifies on top the active desktop.
SlipperyIcon reverts back to the default.

StickyIconPage works like StickyIcon, but sticks the icon only across pages, not desks while
StickyIconDesk works the other way round.

StippledIconTitle works like StippledTitle in that it draws stipples on the titles of icons but
doesn’t make the icon sticky.

IgnoreRestack makes fvwm ignore attempts of clients to raise or lower their own windows. By default,
the opposite style, AllowRestack is active.

FixedPosition and FixedUSPosition make fvwm ignore attempts of the user to move the window. It is
still possible to move the window by resizing it. To allow the user to move windows, use the
VariablePosition or VariableUSPosition style.

FixedSize and FixedUSSize make fvwm ignore attempts of the user to resize the window. To allow the
user to resize windows, use the VariableSize or VariableUSSize style.

FixedPPosition and FixedPSize make fvwm ignore attempts of the program to move or resize its windows.
To allow this kind of actions, use the VariablePPosition or VariablePSize style. These styles may
sometimes affect the initial placement and dimensions of new windows (depending on the application).
If windows are created at strange places, try either the VariablePPosition or !UsePPosition styles.
The FixedPSize style may screw up window dimensions for some applications. Do Not use this style in
this case.

MoveByProgramMethod affects how fvwm reacts to requests by the application to move its windows. By
default, fvwm tries to detect which method to use, but it sometimes detects the wrong method. You may
come across a window that travels across the screen by a few pixels when the application resizes it,
moves to a screen border with the frame decorations off screen, that remembers its position for the
next time it starts but appears in a slighly shifted position, or that attepmts to become full screen
but has the. Try out both options, UseGravity and IgnoreGravity on the window (and that window only)
and see if that helps. By default, fvwm uses the AutoDetect method. Once the method was detected, it
is never changed again. As long as fvwm can not detect the proper method, it uses IgnoreGravity. To
force fvwm to retry the detection, use one of the other two options first and then use AutoDetect
again.

Note: This option was introduced to alleviate a problem with the ICCCM specification. The ICCCM
clearly states that the UseGravity option should be used, but traditionally applications ignored this
rule.

Closable enables the functions Close, Delete and Destroy to be performed on the windows. This is on
by default. The opposite, !Closable, inhibits the window to be closed.

Iconifiable enables the function Iconify to be performed on the windows. This is on by default. The
opposite, !Iconifiable, inhibits the window from being iconified.

Maximizable enables the function Maximize to be performed on the windows. This is on by default. The
opposite, !Maximizable, inhibits the window from being maximized.

AllowMaximizeFixedSize enables the function Maximize to be performed on windows that are not
resizable, unless maximization has been disabled either using the style !Maximizable or through WM
hints. This is on by default. The opposite, !AllowMaximizeFixedSize, inhibits all windows that are
not resizable from being maximized.

ResizeHintOverride instructs fvwm to ignore the program supplied minimum and maximum size as well as
the resize step size (the character size in many applications). This can be handy for broken
applications that refuse to be resized. Do not use it if you do not need it. The default (opposite)
style is NoResizeOverride.

MinWindowSize [ width [ p ] height [ p ] ] Tells fvwm the minimum width and height of a window. The
values are the percentage of the total screen area. If the letter ‘p’ is appended to either of the
values, the numbers are interpreted as pixels. This command is useful for certain versions of xemacs
which freak out if their windows become too small. If you omit he parameters or their values are
invalid, both limits are set to 0 pixels (which is the default value).

MaxWindowSize [ width [ p ] height [ p ] ] Tells fvwm the maximum width and height of a window. The
values are the percentage of the total screen area. If the letter ‘p’ is appended to either of the
values, the numbers are interpreted as pixels. This command is useful to force large application
windows to be fully visible. Neither height nor width may be less than 100 pixels. If you omit the
parameters or their values are invalid, both limits are set to 32767 pixels (which is the default).

With IconifyWindowGroups all windows in the same window group are iconified and deiconified at once
when any window in the group is (de)iconified. The default is IconifyWindowGroupsOff, which disables
this behavior. Although a number of applications use the window group hint, it is rarely used in a
proper way, so it is probably best to use IconifyWindowGroups only for selected applications.

The option SnapAttraction affects interactive window movement: If during an interactive move the
window or icon comes within proximity pixels of another the window or icon, it is moved to make the
borders adjoin. The default of 0 means that no snapping happens. Calling this command without
arguments turns off snap attraction and restores the default behavior. Please refer also to the
SnapGrid command.

The second argument determined is optional and may be set to one of the five following values: With
All both icons and windows snap to other windows and other icons. SameType lets windows snap only to
windows, and icons snap only to icons. With Windows windows snap only to other windows. Similarly
with Icons icons snap only to other icons. With None no snapping takes place. This option can be
useful in conjunction with the following argument if you only want to snap against the screen edges.
The default behavior is All.

The third and last optional argument may be set to one of the four following values:

· With Screen the already snapping icons or windows, which is controlled by the second argument,

will snap now also to the screen edges.

· ScreenWindows snaps only windows to the screen edges.

· ScreenIcons snaps only icons to the screen edges.

· ScreenAll snaps windows and icons to the screen edges.

The option SnapGrid defines an invisible grid on the screen. During an interactive move a window or
icon is positioned such that its location (top left corner) is coincident with the nearest grid point.
The default x-grid-size and y-grid-size setting are both 1, which is effectively no grid all.

An interactive move with both SnapGrid and SnapAttraction results in the window being moved to be
adjacent to the nearest window border (if within snap proximity) or grid position. The window moves
the shortest distance possible to satisfy both SnapGrid and SnapAttraction. Note that the x and y
coordinates are not coupled. For example, a window may snap to another window on the x axis while
snapping to a grid point on the y axis. Using this style without arguments reinstates the default
settings.

The styles EdgeMoveDelay and EdgeResizeDelay tells how hard it should be to change the desktop
viewport by moving or resizing a window over the edge of the screen. The parameter tells how many
milliseconds the pointer must spend on the screen edge before fvwm moves the viewport. The command
EdgeScroll determines how far the viewport is scrolled. If -1 is given as the delay, page flipping is
disabled completely. The defaults are no delay for moving (0) and no flipping for resizing (-1).
Using these styles without any argument restores the default settings. Note that, with

EdgeScroll 0 0

it is still possible to move or resize windows across the edge of the current screen. See also
EdgeThickness.

The option EdgeMoveResistance makes it easier to place a window directly adjacent to the screen’s or
xinerama screen’s border. It takes one or two parameters. The first parameter tells how many pixels
over the edge of the screen a window’s edge must move before it actually moves partially off the
screen. The optional second parameter does the same as the first, but for individual Xinerama
screens. If omitted, the value of the first parameter is assumed for this type of movement. Set the
second parameter to 0 to zero to ignore individual xinerama screen edges. Note that the center of the
window being moved determines the xinerama screen on which the window should be kept. Both values are
0 by default. To restore the defaults, the option EdgeMoveResistance can be used without any
parameters.

The option InitialMapCommand allows for any valid fvwm command or function to run when the window is
initially mapped by fvwm. Example:

Style MyWindow StartsOnPage 0 0, InitialMapCommand Iconify

This would hence place the window called MyWindow on page 0 0 for the current desk, and immediately
run the Iconify command on that window.

Note that should InitialMapCommand be used as a global option for all windows, but there is a need
that some windows should not have this command applied, then an action of Nop can be used on those
windows, as in the following example:

Style * InitialMapCommand Iconify

Style XTeddy InitialMapCommand Nop

Window Manager placement

Applications can place windows at a particular spot on the screen either by window manager hints or a
geometry specification. When they do neither, then the window manager steps in to find a place for
the window. Fvwm knows several ways to deal with this situation. The default is
TileCascadePlacement.

PositionPlacement [Center|UnderMouse|move-arguments] When used without an argument, new windows are
placed in the top left corner of the display. With the argument Center, all new window appear at the
center of the screen, and with UnderMouse, windows are centered under the mouse pointer where
possible. If the window is unable to fit on the screen because the pointer is at the edge of the
screen, then the window is forced on-screen using this option. If any other move-arguments are given,
they are interpreted exactly as the Move command does (with the exception that references to the
current window position do not work as the window has not been placed yet).

CascadePlacement automatically place new windows in a cascading fashion.

TileCascadePlacement automatically places new windows in a smart location – a location in which they
do not overlap any other windows on the screen. If no such position can be found CascadePlacement is
used as a fall-back method.

TileManualPlacement This is the same as TileCascadePlacement, but uses ManualPlacement as the
fall-back method.

MinOverlapPlacement automatically places new windows in a location in which the overlapping area in
pixels of other windows is minimized. By default this placement policy tries to avoid overlapping
icons and windows on higher layers. This can be configured with the MinOverlapPlacementPenalties
style.

MinOverlapPercentPlacement is similar to MinOverlapPlacement but tries to minimize the overlapped
percentages of other windows instead of the overlapped area in pixels. This placement policy tries to
avoid covering other windows completely and tries even harder not to cover small windows. This can be
configured with the MinOverlapPlacementPenalties and MinOverlapPercentPlacementPenalties styles.

MinOverlapPlacementPenalties takes at most 6 positive or null decimal arguments:

normal ontop icon sticky below strut

if trailing arguments are missing the default is used which is:

1 5 10 1 0.05 50

To reset this style to the default values, prefix it with a ‘!’. This style configures the
MinOverlapPlacement and MinOverlapPercentPlacement placement policy. The normal factor affects normal
windows, the ontop factor affects windows with a greater layer than the window being placed, the icon
factor affects icons, the sticky factor affects sticky windows, the below factor affects windows with
a smaller layer than the window being placed, the strut factor affects the complement of the EWMH
working area if the window being placed has the EWMHPlacementUseWorkingArea style and windows with an
EWMH strut hint (i.e., a “please do not cover me” hint) if the window being placed has the
EWMHPlacementUseDynamicWorkingArea style. These factors represent the amount of area that these types
of windows (or area) are counted as, when a new window is placed. For example, by default the area of
ontop windows is counted 5 times as much as normal windows. So MinOverlapPlacement and
MinOverlapPercentPlacement covers 5 times as much area of another window before it will cover an ontop
window. To treat ontop windows the same as other windows, set this to 1. To really, really avoid
putting windows under ontop windows, set this to a high value, say 1000. This style affects the
window already mapped and not the window which is currently placed. There is one exception to this
rule: in the case of the window being placed has the EWMHPlacementUseWorkingArea style the strut
factor affects the placed window.

MinOverlapPercentPlacementPenalties takes at most 4 positive or null integer arguments:

cover_100 cover_95 cover_85 cover_75

if trailing arguments are missing the defaults are used which are:

12 6 4 1

To reset this style to the default values, prefix it with a ‘!’. This style affects the
MinOverlapPercentPlacement placement policy and is similar to the MinOverlapPlacementPenalties style.
The cover_xx factor is used when the window being placed covers at least xx percent of the window.
This factor is added to the factor determined by the MinOverlapPlacementPenalties style.

ManualPlacement (aka active placement). The user is required to place every new window manually. The
window only shows as a rubber band until a place is selected manually. The window is placed when a
mouse button or any key except Escape is pressed. Escape aborts manual placement which places the
window in the top left corner of the screen. If mouse button 2 is pressed during the initial
placement of a window (respectively Shift and mouse button 1 in case Mwm emulation has been enabled
with the Emulate command), the user is asked to resize the window too.

It is possible to define buttons usable to place windows with the Move command and the special context
‘P’ for placement (see Move command). However, you can’t redefine the way to also resize the window
other than the way it is affected by the Emulate command. The button used for placing the window can
be checked with the PlacedByButton condition (see Current command).

Example:

Style * ManualPlacement

*FvwmEvent: PassID

*FvwmEvent: add_window GrowDownFunc

AddToFunc StartFunction

+ I FvwmEvent

AddToFunc GrowDownFunc

+ I windowid $0 (PlacedByButton 3) \

Resize bottomright keep -0p

Now, whenever a window is created and the user presses button 3 to finish initial placement, the
window is automatically enlarged until it hits the bottom screen border.

Old placement styles DumbPlacement / SmartPlacement / SmartPlacementOff, CleverPlacement /
CleverPlacementOff, ActivePlacement / RandomPlacement, ActivePlacementsHonorsStartsOnPage /
ActivePlacementsHonorsStartsOnPageOff, GlobalOpts SmartPlacementIsReallySmart / GlobalOpts
SmartPlacementIsNormal are still supported but will be removed in the future. The old and new styles
can be translated according to the following table:

GlobalOpts SmartPlacementIsReallySmart

Style * SmartPlacement

–>

Style * SmartPlacement, CleverPlacement

GlobalOpts SmartPlacementIsNormal

Style * SmartPlacement

–>

Style * SmartPlacement, CleverPlacementOff

Style * DumbPlacement, RandomPlacement

–>

Style * CascadePlacement

Style * DumbPlacement, ActivePlacement

–>

Style * ManualPlacement

Style * SmartPlacement, \

RandomPlacement, CleverPlacementOff

–>

Style * TileCascadePlacement

Style * SmartPlacement, \

ActivePlacement, CleverPlacementOff

–>

Style * TileManualPlacement

Style * SmartPlacement, CleverPlacement

–>

Style * MinOverlapPlacement

Style * SmartPlacement, \

ActivePlacement, CleverPlacement

–>

Style * MinOverlapPercentPlacement

Style * ActivePlacementsHonorsStartsOnPage

–>

Style * ManualPlacementsHonorsStartsOnPage

Style * ActivePlacementsHonorsStartsOnPageOff

–>

Style * ManualPlacementsHonorsStartsOnPageOff

Placement policy options and window stacking

!UsePPosition instructs fvwm to ignore the program specified position (PPosition hint) when adding new
windows. Using PPosition is required for some applications, but if you do not have one of those it’s
a real headache. Many programs set PPosition to something obnoxious like 0,0 (upper left corner).
Note: !UsePPosition is equivalent to the deprecated option !UsePPosition

!UseUSPosition works like !UsePPosition but applies suppresses using the user specified position
indicated by the program (USPosition hint). It is generally a bad thing to override the user’s
choice, but some applications misuse the USPosition hint to force their windows to a certain spot on
the screen without the user’s consent. Note: !UseUSPosition is equivalent to the deprecated option
!USPosition

NoUseTransientPPosition and UseTransientPPosition work like !UsePPosition and UsePPosition but apply
only to transient windows. Note: !UseTransientPPosition is equivalent to the deprecated option
!TransientPPosition

NoUseIconPosition instructs fvwm to ignore the program specified icon position (IconPosition hint)
when iconifying the window. Note: !UseIconPosition is equivalent to the deprecated option
!IconPosition

StartsOnDesk takes a numeric argument which is the desktop number on which the window should be
initially placed. Note that standard Xt programs can also specify this via a resource (e.g. “-xrm
‘*Desk: 1′”).

StartsOnPage takes 1, 2, or 3 numeric arguments. If one or three arguments are given, the first (or
only) argument is the desktop number. If three arguments are given, the 2nd and 3rd arguments
identify the x,y page position on the virtual window. If two arguments are given, they specify the
page position, and indicate no desk preference. If only one argument is given, StartsOnPage functions
exactly like StartsOnDesk. For those standard Xt programs which understand this usage, the starting
desk/page can also be specified via a resource (e.g., “-xrm ‘*page: 1 0 2′”). StartsOnPage in
conjunction with SkipMapping is a useful technique when you want to start an app on some other page
and continue with what you were doing, rather than waiting for it to appear.

StartsOnScreen takes one argument. It can be ‘p’ for the primary screen, ‘c’ for the current screen
(containing the mouse pointer), ‘g’ for the global screen or the screen number itself (counting from
zero). A new window is placed on the specified Xinerama screen. The default is to place windows on
the screen that contains the mouse pointer at the time the window is created. However, those windows
which are not placed by fvwm (i.e., those with a USPosition hint from a user specified geometry) are
normally placed in a position relative to the global screen. The StartsOnScreen style is also useful
to cause these windows to be placed relative to a specific Xinerama screen. For example:

Style * StartsOnScreen c

Would cause all windows, including those with their own geometry to be placed relative to the current
Xinerama screen rather than the global screen. For those standard Xt programs which understand this
usage, the starting desk/page can also be specified via a resource (e.g., “-xrm ‘*fvwmscreen: c'”).
(‘fvwmscreen’ was chosen because some applications already use ´.screen’ for other purposes.)

StartsOnPageIncludesTransients causes the StartsOnPage style to be applied even for transient windows.
This is not usually useful, since transients are usually pop ups that you want to appear in your
visible viewport; but occasionally an application uses a transient for something like a startup window
that needs to be coerced into place.

ManualPlacementIgnoresStartsOnPage suppresses StartsOnPage or StartsOnDesk placement in the event that
both ManualPlacement and SkipMapping are in effect when a window is created. This prevents you from
interactively placing a window and then wondering where it disappeared to, because it got placed on a
different desk or page. ManualPlacementHonorsStartsOnPage allows this to happen anyway. The option
has no effect if SkipMapping is not in effect, because fvwm switches to the proper desk/page to
perform interactive placement. The default is ManualPlacementIgnoresStartsOnPage;
ManualPlacementHonorsStartsOnPage matches the way the old StartsOnDesk style used to handle the
situation.

CaptureHonorsStartsOnPage causes the initial capture (of an already existing window) at startup to
place the window according to the StartsOnPage and StartsOnScreen desk, page and Xinerama screen
specification. CaptureIgnoresStartsOnPage causes fvwm to ignore these settings (including
StartsOnDesk) on initial capture. The default is CaptureIgnoresStartsOnPage.

RecaptureHonorsStartsOnPage causes a window to be placed according to, or revert to, the StartsOnPage
and StartsOnScreen desk, page and Xinerama screen specification on Restart or Recapture.
RecaptureIgnoresStartsOnPage causes fvwm to respect the current window position on Restart or
Recapture. The default is RecaptureIgnoresStartsOnPage.

Layer accepts one optional argument: a non-negative integer. This is the layer the window is put in.
If no argument is given, any previously set value is deleted and the default layer is implied.

StaysOnTop puts the window in the top layer. This layer can be changed by the command DefaultLayers;
the default is 6.

StaysPut puts the window in the put layer. This layer can be changed by the command DefaultLayers;
the default is 4.

StaysOnBottom puts the window in the bottom layer. This layer can be changed by the command
DefaultLayers; the default is 2.

StartsLowered instructs fvwm to put the window initially at the bottom of its layer rather than the
default StartsRaised.

StartShaded tells fvwm to shade the window. An optional direction argument may be given, which can be
one of “North”, “South”, “West”, “East”, “NorthWest”, “NorthEast”, “SouthWest”, “SouthEast” or if no
direction is given, the default is to shade north.

SkipMapping tells fvwm not to switch to the desk the window is on when it gets mapped initially
(useful with StartsOnDesk or StartsOnPage).

KeepWindowGroupsOnDesk makes new windows that have the window group hint set appear on the same desk
as the other windows of the same group. Since this behavior may be confusing, the default setting is
ScatterWindowGroups. The window group hint is ignored when placing windows in this case.

Transient windows

DecorateTransient,导致瞬态窗口(通常是未装饰的)被赋予通常的fvwm装饰(标题栏、按钮等)。请注意,某些弹出窗口(例如,xterm菜单)不由窗口管理器管理,仍然不会收到装饰。

NakedTransient(默认值),导致瞬态窗口无法获得标准装饰。您只能将键盘或鼠标按钮绑定到未装饰窗口的侧面和客户端部分(在绑定中的“S”和“W”上下文,请参阅Mouse和Key命令)。

RaiseTransient,具有该样式的窗口在升起时,会升起所有它所拥有的瞬态窗口。DontRaiseTransient样式禁用此行为。然后将所有窗口视为没有瞬态。

LowerTransient,具有该样式的窗口在降低时,会降低所有它所拥有的瞬态窗口。DontLowerTransient样式禁用此行为。然后将所有窗口视为没有瞬态。

StackTransientParent,增强了RaiseTransientLowerTransient样式。如果正在升起的窗口是瞬态,并且其主窗口具有RaiseTransient样式,则使用StackTransientParent样式引发窗口会将升起操作传递到主窗口;这种效应会使发生在瞬态窗口的升起像升起主窗口一样 — 整个群体都被升起了。当主窗口具有LowerTransient样式时,类似的行为适用于降低整组瞬态窗口。DontStackTransientParent关闭此行为。如果不使用RaiseTransientLowerTransient,则StackTransientParent/DontStackTransientParent是无效的。

如下配置可以合理地模拟Motif提升/降低瞬态窗口:

Style * RaiseTransient
Style * LowerTransient
Style * StackTransientParent

这也是常用的配置组合。

Extended Window Manager Hints styles

To understand the used terminology in this sub section, please read the Extended Window Manager Hints
section.

EWMHDonateIcon instructs fvwm to set the application ewmh icon hint with the icon that is used by fvwm
if the application does not provide such hint (and if the icon used by fvwm is not an icon window).
EWMHDonateMiniIcon does the same thing for mini icons. This allows compliant pager, taskbar, iconbox
…etc to display the same (mini) icons as fvwm. Note that on some hardware (e.g., 8-bit displays)
these styles can slow down window mapping and that in general only one of these styles is needed by a
compliant application. EWMHDontDonateIcon and EWMHDontDonateMiniIcon restore the defaults which are
to not set any ewmh (mini) icons hints.

By default, if an application provides an ewmh icon hint of small size (i.e., height and width less
than or equal to 22), then fvwm uses this icon as its mini icon. EWMHMiniIconOverride instructs fvwm
to ignore ewmh icons and to use the mini icon provided by the MiniIcon style. EWMHNoMiniIconOverride
restores the default.

EWMHUseStackingOrderHints causes fvwm to use EWMH hints and respect EWMH hints which change the window
layer. EWMHIgnoreStackingOrderHints causes fvwm to ignore EWMH layer hints.

An application can ask for some reserved space on the desktop by a hint. In the EWMH terminology such
a hint is called a strut and it is used to compute the working area and may be used for window
placement and in the maximize command. EWMHIgnoreStrutHints causes fvwm to ignore such hints, as
EWMHUseStrutHints, causes fvwm to use it which is the default.

EWMHIgnoreStateHints causes fvwm to ignore initial EWMH state hints when a new window is mapped. The
default EWMHUseStateHints causes fvwm to accept such hints.

EWMHIgnoreWindowType causes fvwm to ignore EWMH window type specification. The default
!EWMHIgnoreWindowType causes fvwm to style windows of specified types as such.

EWMHMaximizeIgnoreWorkingArea causes fvwm to ignore the EWMH working area when it executes a Maximize
command. With EWMHMaximizeUseWorkingArea the EWMH working area is used as with
EWMHMaximizeUseDynamicWorkingArea the EWMH dynamic working area is used (the default).

EWMHPlacementIgnoreWorkingArea causes fvwm to ignore the EWMH working area when it places (or places
again) a window. With EWMHPlacementUseWorkingArea the EWMH working area is taken in account as with
EWMHPlacementUseDynamicWorkingArea the EWMH dynamic working area is taken in account (the default).
Note that with the MinOverlapPlacement and MinOverlapPercentPlacement placement policy, the way the
EWMH (dynamic) working area is taken in account is configurable with the MinOverlapPlacementPenalties
style.

Miscellaneous

The BackingStore, BackingStoreOff and BackingStoreWindowDefault determine if the X server uses backing
store for the window or not. BackingStore means that the X server tries to keep the obscured parts of
a window in memory. This is usually slower if the client runs on the same machine as the X server,
but can be much faster if the connection is slow (see also SaveUnder below). BackingStoreOff disables
backing store for the window. By default, fvwm does not enable or disable backing store itself but
leaves is as the window requested it. To revert back to the application’s choice, use the
BackingStoreWindowDefault style.

Note: This style is useless if the X server does not allow backing store.

SaveUnder enables the corresponding window attribute in the X server. For a window using this style,
the X server tries to store the graphics below it in memory which is usually slower if the client runs
on the same machine as the X server. SaveUnder may speed up fvwm if the connection to the X server is
slow (e.g. over a modem link). To disable save under, use the SaveUnderOff style. This is the
default. See also BackingStore above.

Note: This style is useless if the X server does not allow save under.

ParentalRelativity enables clients that use a background pixmap of type ParentRelative to achieve
transparency. Fvwm modules that support transparent colorsets require this setting. Opacity is the
default and should be used for all non-transparent clients for better performance.

MwmDecor makes fvwm attempt to recognize and respect the mwm decoration hints that applications
occasionally use. To switch this style off, use the NoDecorHint style.

MwmFunctions makes fvwm attempt to recognize and respect the mwm prohibited operations hints that
applications occasionally use. HintOverride makes fvwm shade out operations that mwm would prohibit,
but it lets you perform the operation anyway. NoFuncHint allows turns off the mwm hints completely.

OLDecor makes fvwm attempt to recognize and respect the olwm and olvwm hints that many older XView and
OLIT applications use. Switch this option off with NoOLDecor.

With GNOMEIgnoreHints fvwm ignores all GNOME hints for the window, even if GNOME compliance is
compiled in. This is useful for those pesky applications that try to be more clever than the user and
use GNOME hints to force the window manager to ignore the user’s preferences. The GNOMEUseHints style
switches back to the default behavior.

UseDecor This style is deprecated and will be removed in the future. There are plans to replace it
with a more flexible solution in fvwm-3.0.

UseDecor accepts one argument: the name of a decor created with AddToDecor. If no decor name is
specified, the “Default” decor is used. Windows do not actually contain decors, but are always
assigned to one. If the decor is later modified with AddToDecor, the changes are visible for all
windows which are assigned to it. The decor for a window can be reassigned with ChangeDecor.

UseStyle This style is deprecated and will be removed in the future. There are plans to replace it
with a more flexible solution in fvwm-3.0.

UseStyle takes one arg, which is the name of another style. That way you can have unrelated window
names easily inherit similar traits without retyping. For example:

Style rxvt UseStyle XTerm

Warning: If a style is built from one or more parent styles and the parent styles are changed, the
derived style is not modified. To achieve this you have to issue the UseStyle line again.

Unmanaged Windows with the Unmanaged style option are ignored by fvwm. They are not decorated, can
not be moved or resized, etc. You probably want to use Bugopts RaiseOverUnmanaged too. This option
can be turned off with the !Unmanaged style. However, windows that are already ignored at the time
when the option is set must be recaptured with the Recapture command in order to become managed.

State sets the initial value of one of the 32 user defined states which are associated with each
window. The state number ranges from 0 to 31 and must be given as an argument. The states have no
meaning in fvwm, but they can be checked in conditional commands like Next with the State condition
and manipulated with the State command.

# turn on state 11 for xterms …

Style xterm State 11

# … but not for rxvts.

Style rxvt !State 11

Windows with the WindowListSkip styles do not appear in the menu that is created with the WindowList
command or the lists shown in modules like FvwmIconMan. In the modules, the style can usually be
ignored with an option. Please refer to the man page of the module in question for further
information. To disable this feature, use the default style WindowListHit.

The styles CirculateSkip and CirculateHit control whether the window is considered by conditional
commands, for example Next, Prev or All. Windows with CirculateSkip, are never selected by
conditional commands. However, the styles can be overridden explicitly in the condition with the
CirculateHit, CirculateHitIcon or CirculateHitShaded conditions, and some conditional commands, e.g.
Current and All, do this by default. The styles CirculateSkipIcon, CirculateHitIcon,
CirculateSkipShaded and CirculateHitShaded work like CirculateSkip and CirculateHit but apply only to
iconic or shaded windows. Note: if multiple …Skip… options are combined, windows are only
selected if they match none of the given conditions. So, with

Style * CirculateSkipIcon, CirculateSkipShaded

only windows that are neither iconic nor shaded are selected. Note: For historical reasons, the
conditional commands understand the names of these styles as condition names. Take care not to
confuse them.

配置示例

# Change default fvwm behavior to no titlebars on windows! Also define a default icon.
Style * !Title,                \
	Icon unknown1.xpm,     \
	BorderWidth 4,         \
	HandleWidth 5

# now, window specific changes:
Style Fvwm* !Handles, Sticky, WindowListSkip, BorderWidth 0
Style FvwmPager   StaysOnTop, BorderWidth 0
Style *lock !Handles, Sticky, StaysOnTop, WindowListSkip
Style xbiff       Sticky, WindowListSkip
Style FvwmButtons !Handles, Sticky, WindowListSkip
Style sxpm        !Handles

# Put title-bars back on xterms only!
Style xterm     Title, Color black/grey

Style rxvt        Icon term.xpm
Style xterm       Icon rterm.xpm
Style xcalc       Icon xcalc.xpm
Style xbiff       Icon mail1.xpm
Style xmh         Icon mail1.xpm, StartsOnDesk 2
Style xman        Icon xman.xpm
Style matlab      Icon math4.xpm, StartsOnDesk 3
Style xmag        Icon magnifying_glass2.xpm
Style xgraph      Icon graphs.xpm
Style FvwmButtons Icon toolbox.xpm
Style Maker       StartsOnDesk 1
Style signal      StartsOnDesk 3

# Fire up Netscape on the second desk, in the
# middle of my 3x3 virtual desktop, and do not
# bother me with it...
Style Netscape* SkipMapping, StartsOnPage 1 1 1

Note that all properties for a window are or’ed together. In the above example “FvwmPager” gets the
property StaysOnTop via an exact window name match but also gets !Handles, Sticky and WindowListSkip
by a match to “Fvwm*”. It gets !Title by virtue of a match to “*”. If conflicting styles are
specified for a window, then the last style specified is used.

参考文献

FVWM/Controlling Window Styles