「Chapter 17- 形容词从句简化」

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形容词从句就是关系从句,主、从两个从句间一定有重复的元 素以建立关系。既然有重复,就可省略。如果重复的元素(关系词) 是关系从句的宾语,通常只是把关系词本身省略,例如:
1.The man is here.
S V c
2.You asked about him.
s v 介系词o
-»(A) The man whom you asked about is here.
关系从句
— (B) The man you asked about is here.
关系从句
(你要找的人在这儿。)

例2中的him就是例1中的the man,借由这个重复来建立两 句间的关系。将him改写为关系词whom即可将两句连接起来,成 为(A)的形状。关系词whom是介系词about的宾语,挪到句首后可 以省略,成为(B)。
.关系词是宾语而省略掉的情况,只是一般性的省略。关系从句 中仍有主语、动词((B)的you asked about),所以这种省略不算是 真正的简化从句。
如果关系词是关系从句的主语,那么简化起来,省略主语就势 必也要省略be动词,这就是典型的形容词从句简化。以下就简化 之后所留下的不同补语来加以分类介绍。
补语为Ven
如果关系从句中是被动态,就会简化成为过去分词的补语部 分。例如:
1.Beer is most delicious.
s
2.k is chilled to 6°C
s
-• (A) Beer which is chilled to 6 “C is most delicious.
关系从句
(啤酒冰到摄氏六度最可口。)
例2的主语和例1重复,改成关系词which来连接两句,即成 (A)的形状。在(A)中,主语which与先行词的beer重复,动词部分 因为是被动态,有be动词在。这时只要将主语与be动词(which is)
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省略,就成为:
Beer chilled to 6 C is most delicious.
简化形容词从句
关系从句简化后剩下的补语是过去分词短语,属于形容词类, 而原来的从句也是形容词类,所以没有词类的冲突,可以取代关系 从句来形容beer,而且意思不变,这就是成功的简化从句。再举一 个有逗号的关系从句为例:
Your brother John, who was wounded in war,
先行词 关系从句
will soon be sent home.
(你哥哥约翰作战受伤,即将被送回家。)
这个句子中,先行词your brother John是专有名词,后面的关 系从句因而没有“指出是谁”的功能,只有“补充说明”的功能, 所以应置于括弧性的逗号中 对逗号当括弧使用,用来作补
充说明。放在逗号中的关系从句,简化方式仍然一样,只要把主语 与be动词省略即可:
Your brother John, wounded in war, will soon be sent home.
简化形容词从句
补语为Ving
如果关系从句中的动词是be+Ving的形状(进行式),只要省 略主语与be动词即可。例如:
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The ship which is coming to shore is from Gaoxiong.
先行词 关系从句
(正在靠岸的那条船是从高雄来的。)
关系从句中的主语which就是the ship,又有be动词,只要省 去这两个部分,就成为:
The ship coming to shore is from Gaoxiong.
简化关•系从句
剩下的补语部分是现在分词短语,属于形容词类,与原来的关 系从句词类相同,这就是成功的简化从句。
如果关系从句中没有be动词,也没有助动词,就要把动词改 成Ving的形状。例如:
My old car, which breaks down every other week, won’t last 先行词 关系从句
much longer.
(我那辆老爷车,每篇一个星期总要抛锚一次,大概开不了多
久了。)
这个关系从句,动词是breaks down,既无be动词也无助动词, 无法省略,所以要先改成有be动词的形态:is breaking down,有 了 be动词,breaking down就可成为补语部分保留下来,只省略主 语与be动词,成为:

My old car, breaking down every other week, won’t last 简化形容词从句
much longer.
补语为to V
如果关系从句的动词有语气助动词存在,就会成为不定词补语 留下来。例如:
John is the one who should go this time.(这次是约翰走人。) 先行词 关系从句
关系从句中的who should go固然没有be动词,只要将其改成 who is to go就有了,且意思相近,再把who is省略,即成为:
John is the one to go this time 简化形容词从句
不定词的词类是“不一定”什么词类,也就是当名词、形容词、 副词使用皆可。所以也符合原来关系从句的词类,可以形容先行词 the one,是正确的简化从句。
1 .不定词的主动、被动判断
不定词也有主动与被动之分。其间的选择如果还原成关系从句 就可以看得很清楚。例如:
1.John is not a man to trust.(约翰这人不可信.。) 简化形容词从句
2.John is not a man lo be trusted.
简化形容词从句
例1和例2都对。为什么?这得看看原来的关系从句是什么。 如果原先是这两句:
John is not a man.
o
One can trust the man.
s v o
后面这一句的宾语the man就是前一句的a man,可以改为关 系词,合成:
John is not a man whom one can trust.
先行词 关系从句
因为关系从句中的关系词whom是宾语,可以省略,成为:
John is not a man one can trust一
先行词关系从句
这个关系从句中的主语是空洞的one,可以简化,再把can trust 简化为to trust,即成为例1 John is not a man to trust0反之,如果 原先是这两句:
John is not a man.
o *

The man can be trusted.
就会成为这个复句:
John is not a man who can be trusted.
先行词 关系从句
从这个关系从句简化出来(省略主语who,助动词改为不定 词),即可得岀例2 John is not a man to be trusted的结果。所以在 这个例子中,不定词采主动或被动皆可。至于该用主动还是被动, 要看上下文决定,不可一概而论。
2.不定词有无宾语的判断
不定词中如果是及物动词,又有加不加宾语的差别。这也要看 原来关系从句的句型来判断。例如:
1.This is exactly the thing to do.(这正是该做的事。)
先行词简化形容词从句
2.This is exactly the time to do it.
先行词简化形容词从句
(是做这件事的时候了。)
例1可视为由这两句变化而来:
This is exactly the thing.
o . .
We should do the thing.
s v o

后一句中的the thing是宾语,改写为关系词后成为:
This is exactly the thing which we should do.
先行词 关系从句
因为关系词which是宾语,可径行省略(这就是为什么到最后 不定词中缺了宾语),成为:
This is exactly the thing we should do.
先行词 关系从句
再把关系从句中的主语we省略(因为对方知道你在说谁),把 助动词改为不定词,就得出例I This is exactly the thing to doo 如果原来是这两句话:
This is exactly the time.
o
We should do it at this time.
s v o时间副词
后一句中是以时间副词和先行词the time重复,因而改写成关 系副词when来连接:
This is exactly the time when we should do it
先行词 关系从句
关系副词非主要词类,在前面没有逗号的情况下可以径行省

略,成为:
This is exactly the time we should do it.
先行词 关系从句
再将关系从句以同样方法简化,于是得出例2 This is exactly the time to do it 的结果。
3.不定词后面有无介系词的判断
有些不定词宾语后面会跟个介系词,像to talk to. to deal with、 to get into等。这是因为介系词后面的宾语就是关系词,径行省略 之故,因而只见介系词不见宾语。例如:
1.He will be the toughest guy.
o
2.You must deal with the guy
s v 介系词 o
例2中的the guy是介系词with的宾语,它和例1的guy重复 而建立关系,改写成关系词来连接两句:
He will be the toughest guy whom you must deal with.
先行词 关系从句
(他会是你得对付的家伙中最难缠的一个。)
关系从句中的关系词因为是宾语,可以径行省略,成为:
He will be the toughest guy you must deal with.
先行词 关系从句
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如果对方知道你的意思,那么关系从句的主语you就可省略、 再把must简化为to,即成为:
He will be the toughest guy to deal with.
先行词简化形容词从句
不定词后面如果跟有介系词,大多是这个道理,只要还原成关 系从句即可明白。
4.不定词的主语不清时如何处理
如果主语省略会造成意思不清楚,可以安排主语于介系词短语 中以宾语形态岀现。最常用的介系词是for。例如:
I have a job that your brother can do.
先行词 关系从句
(我有件差事想请你哥哥来做。)
关系从句的关系词that是宾语,可以径行省略,成为:
I have a job your brother can do.
. 先行词 关系从句
这个关系从句的动词can do照样可简化为to do,但是主语your brother不宜省略,不然会变成I have a job to do (我自己有件差事 要做)。碰到这种主语不能省略的情形,可以用介系词短语来安插 主语(这是配合不定词时的选择,若非不定词则另当别论),成为:
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I have a job for your brother to do. 先行词 简化形容词从句 .
补语为一般形容词
若关系从句动词是be动词,后面是单纯的形容词类作补语,可 直接简化主语(即关系词)和be动词,只留下补语。例如:
Hilary Clinton, who is pretty and intelligent, is a popular 先行词 关系从句
First Lady.
(希拉里・克林顿义漂亮又聪明,是相当受欢迎的第一夫人。)
关系从句中的主语who与be动词省略后,剩下的部分pretty and intelligent还是形容词,与原来的关系从句词类相同,所以可简 化取代:
Hilary Clinton, pretty and intelligent, is a popular First Lady.
先行词 简化形容词从句
了解形容词从句的简化,就可以了解pretty and intelligent是简 化从句的补语部分。由此观之,形容词只有两种位置:名词短语中 (a pretty woman)及补语位置(the woman is pretty)o如果乍看之下两 个位置都不是,那么多半就是简化形容词从句的残留补语。

补语为名词
关系从句是形容词类,如果简化主语和be动词,剩下的是名 词补语,其词类虽与原来的关系从句词类有冲突,但仍然可以使 用。传统语法则为此取了个名称:同位语,来避开词类的冲突。例 如:
Bill Clihton, who is President of the U.S., is a Baby Boomer. 先行词 关系从句
(比尔•克林顿,美国总统,是生育高峰期出生的。)
由who引导的关系从句以名词短语President of the U.S.为补语, 简化主语与be动词后就剩下它。这就是传统语法所谓的同位语:
Bill Clinton, President of the U.S., is a Baby Boomer.
先行词 简化形容词从句
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Test 17
练习一
将下列各句中的关系从句(即画底线部分)改写为简化从句:
1.Medieval suits of armor, which were developed for protection during battle, are now placed in castles fbr decoration.
2.The change of style in these paintings should be obvious to anyone that is 忸miliar with the artist’s works.
3.Islands are actually tips of underwater mountain peaks that rise above water.
4.John Milton, who was author of Paradise Lost, was a key member of Oliver Cromwell’s cabinet.
5.The secretary thought that it might not be the best time that she should ask her boss for a raise.
6.Gold is one of the heaviest metals that are known to man.
7.Here are some books that your brother can use.
8.Sexual harassment, which is a hotly debated issue in the work place, will be the topic of the intercollegiate debate next week.
9.There’s nothing left that I can say now.
10.People that live along the waterfront must be evacuated before the storm hits.
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练习二
请选岀最适当的答案填入空格内,以使句子完整。

一新一

(C)you to go
(D)for you going
7.Penicillin, in the early 20th century, brought in the golden age of chemotherapy.
(A)to be discovered
(B)discovering
(C)discovery was
(D)discovered
8.Those are not words .
(A)to be taken seriously
(B)to take them seriously
(C)taking seriously
(D)are taken seriously
9.The mouse, like the keyboard, is a control device to a computer.
(A)connected
(B)to connect it
(C)and connect
(D)that connect
10.An amendment to the Constitution in Harry
Truman’s tenure limits the US presidency to two terms.
(A)passing
(B)to pass
(C)passed
(D)was passed

Answer 次
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17

练习一
1.Medieval suits of armor, developed fbr protection during battle, are now placed in castles fbr decoration.
2.The change of style in these paintings should be obvious to anyone fhmiliar with the artist’s works.
3.Islands are actually tips of underwater mountain peaks rising above water.
4.John Milton, author of Paradise Lost, was a key member of Oliver CromwelPs cabinet.
5.The secretary thought that it might not be the best time to ask her boss for a raise.
6.Gold is one of the heaviest metals known to man
7.Here are some books fbr your brother to use
8.Sexual harassment, a hotly debated issue in the work place, will be the topic of the intercollegiate debate next week.
9.There’s nothing left (fbr me) to say now.
10.People living along the waterfront must be evacuated before the storm hits.

练习二
1.(C)
答案C的句型是Vitamin C is often found in fruit and vegetables, 中间再加上同位语a trace element (微量元素),也就是关系 从句 which is a trace element 的简化。
2.(A)
空格以下原为关系从句that was excavated in East Africa, 简化后即得A。
3- (C)
空格以下原为关系从句who were actively using the computer…, ‘ 简化成为C。

  1. (A)’

空格以下原为关系从句 which functions as the earth’s lungs, 简化为A。

5- (D)

空格以下原为关系从句that is called coalescence,简化为



6.(B)

空格以下原为关系从句where you can go,简化为B。

7.(D)

空格以下原为关系从句which was discovered in the early 20th century,简化为 D。

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8.(A)

空格以下原为关系从句that should be taken seriously,简化 为A。

9.(A)

空格以下原为关系从句that is connected to a computer,减 化为A。

10.(C)

空格以下原为关系从句that was passed in Harry Truman’s tenure,简化为C。