「Linux」- 安装 Google Chrome 及 Chromium 应用

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Chromium on Ubuntu 21.04

在 Ubuntu 21.04 中,我们能够通过 apt 来安装 Chromium 浏览器:

apt-get install chromium-browser

但是,最后还是通过 snap 完成安装的,这就比较麻烦(Selenium/File not found),某些操作需要我们了解和配置 snap 服务。

通过 deb 安装 Chromium 的文章有很多(有些同志也不喜欢这种 snap 方式):
1)chrome – Get Chromium On Ubuntu 20.04 WITHOUT SNAP! – Unix & Linux Stack Exchange
2)package management – How to install Chromium without snap? – Ask Ubuntu

但是,如果不通过 snap 而是通过 apt 的 deb 安装,由于这不是官方的默认行为,谁知道以后会带来什么问题。

最终,我们还是接受 snap 安装 Chromium 这种行为。当然 Google Chrome 还是能通过 deb 安装,这倒是令人欣慰。

Google Chrome on Ubuntu 20.04 LTS

# 访问官方站点下载 .deb 安装包
# https://www.google.com/chrome/

# 执行安装命令
dpkg -i google-chrome-stable_current_amd64.deb

源码获取、配置、构建、运行

Homepage: http://dev.chromium.org/

developers: http://dev.chromium.org/developers

http://dev.chromium.org/developers/how-tos/get-the-code

linux build instructions.md

https://chromium.googlesource.com/chromium/src/+/master/docs/linux_build_instructions.md

以下内容,源自于上述 linux-build-instructions.md 及个人经验,仅供参考:

System requirements

A 64-bit Intel machine with at least 8GB of RAM. More than 16GB is highly recommended.

At least 100GB of free disk space.

You must have Git and Python installed already.

Most development is done on Ubuntu (currently 14.04, Trusty Tahr). There are some instructions for other distros below,
but they are mostly unsupported.

Install depot_tools

depot_tools: This package contains tools for working with Chromium development. It requires python 2.7.

Clone the depot_tools repository:

Add
depot_tools to the end of your PATH (you will probably want to put this in your ~/.bashrc or ~/.zshrc). Assuming you cloned depot_tools to /path/to/depot_tools:

$ export PATH=”$PATH:/path/to/depot_tools”

Get the code

Create a chromium directory for the checkout and change to it (you can call this whatever you like and put it wherever you like, as long as the full path has no spaces):

$ mkdir ~/chromium && cd ~/chromium

Run the
fetch tool
from depot_tools to check out the code and its dependencies.

$ fetch –nohooks chromium

If you don’t want the full repo history, you can save a lot of time by adding the
–no-history flag to fetch.

Expect the command to take 30 minutes on even a fast connection, and many hours on slower ones.

If you’ve already installed the build dependencies on the machine (from another checkout, for example), you can omit the –nohooks flag and fetch will automatically execute
gclient runhooks at the end.

When fetch completes, it will have created a hidden
.gclient file and a directory called
src in the working directory. The remaining instructions assume you have switched to the src directory:

$ cd src

Install additional build dependencies

Once you have checked out the code, and
assuming you’re using Ubuntu, run build/install-build-deps.sh

You may need to adjust the build dependencies for other distros. There are some notes at the end of this document, but we make no guarantees for their accuracy.

文章结尾有一些关于其他发行版的环境搭建,但是官方也说了:“我们不保证他们的准确性。”:(


install-build-deps.sh 需要看一下,里面有支持的系统类型,需要调整一下,具体调整依赖编译者环境,
脚本的主要目的还是安装依赖


我的install-build-deps.sh

Run the hooks

Once you’ve run
install-build-deps at least once, you can now run the Chromium-specific hooks, which will
download additional binaries and other things you might need:

$ gclient runhooks

Optional: You can also install API keys if you want your build to talk to some Google services, but this is not necessary for most development and testing purposes.

现在,我卡在这里,因为下载失败。起因是 gclient 的下载没有走代理,02/19/2017

暂时想到的办法:

1)iptables 进行 TCP重定向,全都扔给 shadowsocks;

2)搞一个Web Server(https的,因为资源链接是 https的。用http就要修改代码,越弄越复杂。);
然后修改 /etc/hosts 文件,将依赖的下载域名解析到我的 WebServer;

把下载到的“依赖”放在 WebServer中;

*:很显然这个不现实,问题在于如果潜在的多个未下载的依赖,要挨个处理;

3)查看 gclient 的安装原理,手动安装。
*:很显然这个也不现实,问题在于如果潜在的多个未下载的依赖,也要挨个处理;(天意,还没到用 python 的时候)

所以最后还是决定用 iptables 的 tcp 重定向;

但我决定进入进入春歇,下面的内容先不要看;

Setting up the build

Chromium uses
Ninja as its main build tool along with a tool called GN to generate .ninja files. You can create any number of build directories with different configurations. To create a build directory, run:

$ gn gen out/Default

You only have to run this once for each new build directory, Ninja will update the build files as needed.

You can replace Default with another name, but it should be a subdirectory of out.

For other build arguments, including release settings, see GN build configuration. The default will be a debug component build matching the current host operating system and CPU.

For more info on GN, run gn help on the command line or read the quick start guide.

Faster builds

This section contains some things you can change to speed up your builds, sorted so that the things that make the biggest difference are first.

Disable NaCl

By default, the build includes support for Native Client (NaCl), but most of the time you won‘t need it. You can set the GN argument enable_nacl=false and it won’t be built.

Include fewer debug symbols

By default GN produces a build with all of the debug assertions enabled (is_debug=true) and including full debug info (symbol_level=2). Setting symbol_level=1 will produce enough information for stack traces, but not line-by-line debugging. Setting symbol_level=0 will include no debug symbols at all. Either will speed up the build compared to full symbols.

Disable debug symbols for Blink

Due to its extensive use of templates, the Blink code produces about half of our debug symbols. If you don’t ever need to debug Blink, you can set the GN arg remove_webcore_debug_symbols=true.

Use Icecc

Icecc is the distributed compiler with a central scheduler to share build load. Currently, many external contributors use it. e.g. Intel, Opera, Samsung (Googlers use an internal system called Goma).

In order to use icecc, set the following GN args:

linux_use_bundled_binutils=false

use_debug_fission=false

is_clang=false

use_sysroot=false

See these links for more on the bundled_binutils limitation, the debug fission limitation.

Using the system linker may also be necessary when using glibc 2.21 or newer. See related bug.

ccache

You can use ccache to speed up local builds (again, this is not useful if you’re using a Googler using Goma).

Increase your ccache hit rate by setting CCACHE_BASEDIR to a parent directory that the working directories all have in common (e.g., /home/yourusername/development). Consider using CCACHE_SLOPPINESS=include_file_mtime (since if you are using multiple working directories, header times in svn sync’ed portions of your trees will be different – see the ccache troubleshooting section for additional information). If you use symbolic links from your home directory to get to the local physical disk directory where you keep those working development directories, consider putting

alias cd=”cd -P”

in your .bashrc so that $PWD or cwd always refers to a physical, not logical directory (and make sure CCACHE_BASEDIR also refers to a physical parent).

If you tune ccache correctly, a second working directory that uses a branch tracking trunk and is up to date with trunk and was gclient sync’ed at about the same time should build chrome in about 1/3 the time, and the cache misses as reported by ccache -s should barely increase.

This is especially useful if you use git-new-workdir and keep multiple local working directories going at once.

Using tmpfs

You can use tmpfs for the build output to reduce the amount of disk writes required. I.e. mount tmpfs to the output directory where the build output goes:

As root:

mount -t tmpfs -o size=20G,nr_inodes=40k,mode=1777 tmpfs /path/to/out

Caveat: You need to have enough RAM + swap to back the tmpfs. For a full debug build, you will need about 20 GB. Less for just building the chrome target or for a release build.

Quick and dirty benchmark numbers on a HP Z600 (Intel core i7, 16 cores hyperthreaded, 12 GB RAM)

With tmpfs:

12m:20s

Without tmpfs

15m:40s

Build Chromium

Build Chromium (the “chrome” target) with Ninja using the command:

$ ninja -C out/Default chrome

You can get a list of all of the other build targets from GN by running gn ls out/Default from the command line. To compile one, pass the GN label to Ninja with no preceding “
” (so, for chrome/test:unit_tests use ninja -C out/Default chrome/test:unit_tests).

Run Chromium

Once it is built, you can simply run the browser:

$ out/Default/chrome

Running test targets

You can run the tests in the same way. You can also limit which tests are run using the –gtest_filter arg, e.g.:

$ out/Default/unit_tests –gtest_filter=”PushClientTest.*”

You can find out more about GoogleTest at its GitHub page.

Update your checkout

To update an existing checkout, you can run

$ git rebase-update

$ gclient sync

The first command updates the primary Chromium source repository and rebases any of your local branches on top of tip-of-tree (aka the Git branch origin/master). If you don’t want to use this script, you can also just use git pull or other common Git commands to update the repo.

The second command syncs dependencies to the appropriate versions and re-runs hooks as needed.

Tips, tricks, and troubleshooting

Linker Crashes

If, during the final link stage:

LINK out/Debug/chrome

You get an error like:

collect2: ld terminated with signal 6 Aborted terminate called after throwing an instance of ‘std::bad_alloc’

collect2: ld terminated with signal 11 [Segmentation fault], core dumped

you are probably running out of memory when linking. You must use a 64-bit system to build. Try the following build settings (see GN build configuration for other settings):

Build in release mode (debugging symbols require more memory): is_debug = false

Turn off symbols: symbol_level = 0

Build in component mode (this is for development only, it will be slower and may have broken functionality): is_component_build = true

More links

Information about building with Clang.

You may want to use a chroot to isolate yourself from versioning or packaging conflicts.

Cross-compiling for ARM? See LinuxChromiumArm.

Want to use Eclipse as your IDE? See LinuxEclipseDev.

Want to use your built version as your default browser? See LinuxDevBuildAsDefaultBrowser.

Next Steps

If you want to contribute to the effort toward a Chromium-based browser for Linux, please check out the Linux Development page for more information.

Notes for other distros

Arch Linux

Instead of running install-build-deps.sh to install build dependencies, run:

$ sudo pacman -S –needed python perl gcc gcc-libs bison flex gperf pkgconfig \

nss alsa-lib gconf glib2 gtk2 nspr ttf-ms-fonts freetype2 cairo dbus \

libgnome-keyring

For the optional packages on Arch Linux:

php-cgi is provided with pacman

wdiff is not in the main repository but dwdiff is. You can get wdiff in AUR/yaourt

sun-java6-fonts do not seem to be in main repository or AUR.

Debian

Some tests require the ttf-mscorefonts-installer package from the contrib component. contrib packages may have dependencies on non-free software.

If you need to run tests requiring MS TTF fonts, you can edit your apt sources.list by adding contrib to the end of each line beginning with deb. You might end up with something like this:

deb
http://ftp.us.debian.org/debian/ jessie main contrib

deb-src
http://ftp.us.debian.org/debian/ jessie main contrib

deb
http://security.debian.org/ jessie/updates main contrib

deb-src
http://security.debian.org/ jessie/updates main contrib

# jessie-updates, previously known as ‘volatile’

deb
http://ftp.us.debian.org/debian/ jessie-updates main contrib

deb-src
http://ftp.us.debian.org/debian/ jessie-updates main contrib

Next, run:

$ sudo apt-get update

$ sudo apt-get install ttf-mscorefonts-installer

If you already have the contrib component enabled, install-build-deps.sh will install ttf-mscorefonts-installer for you.

Fedora

Instead of running build/install-build-deps.sh, run:

su -c ‘yum install git python bzip2 tar pkgconfig atk-devel alsa-lib-devel \

bison binutils brlapi-devel bluez-libs-devel bzip2-devel cairo-devel \

cups-devel dbus-devel dbus-glib-devel expat-devel fontconfig-devel \

freetype-devel gcc-c++ GConf2-devel glib2-devel glibc.i686 gperf \

glib2-devel gtk2-devel gtk3-devel java-1.*.0-openjdk-devel libatomic \

libcap-devel libffi-devel libgcc.i686 libgnome-keyring-devel libjpeg-devel \

libstdc++.i686 libX11-devel libXScrnSaver-devel libXtst-devel \

libxkbcommon-x11-devel ncurses-compat-libs nspr-devel nss-devel pam-devel \

pango-devel pciutils-devel pulseaudio-libs-devel zlib.i686 httpd mod_ssl \

php php-cli python-psutil wdiff’

The msttcorefonts packages can be obtained by following these instructions. For the optional packages:

php-cgi is provided by the php-cli package.

sun-java6-fonts doesn’t exist in Fedora repositories, needs investigating.

Gentoo

You can just run emerge www-client/chromium.

Mandriva

Instead of running build/install-build-deps.sh, run:

urpmi lib64fontconfig-devel lib64alsa2-devel lib64dbus-1-devel \

lib64GConf2-devel lib64freetype6-devel lib64atk1.0-devel lib64gtk+2.0_0-devel \

lib64pango1.0-devel lib64cairo-devel lib64nss-devel lib64nspr-devel g++ python \

perl bison flex subversion gperf

msttcorefonts are not available, you will need to build your own (see instructions, not hard to do, see mandriva_msttcorefonts.md) or use drakfont to import the fonts from a Windows installation.

OpenSUSE

Use zypper command to install dependencies:

(openSUSE 11.1 and higher)

sudo zypper in subversion pkg-config python perl \
bison flex gperf mozilla-nss-devel glib2-devel gtk-devel \

wdiff lighttpd gcc gcc-c++ gconf2-devel mozilla-nspr \

mozilla-nspr-devel php5-fastcgi alsa-devel libexpat-devel \

libjpeg-devel libbz2-devel
For 11.0, use libnspr4-0d and libnspr4-dev instead of mozilla-nspr and mozilla-nspr-devel, and use php5-cgi instead of php5-fastcgi. And need gtk2-devel.

(openSUSE 11.0)

sudo zypper in subversion pkg-config python perl \
bison flex gperf mozilla-nss-devel glib2-devel gtk-devel \

libnspr4-0d libnspr4-dev wdiff lighttpd gcc gcc-c++ libexpat-devel \

php5-cgi gconf2-devel alsa-devel gtk2-devel jpeg-devel
The Ubuntu package sun-java6-fonts contains a subset of Java of the fonts used. Since this package requires Java as a prerequisite anyway, we can do the same thing by just installing the equivalent openSUSE Sun Java package:

sudo zypper in java-1_6_0-sun

WebKit is currently hard-linked to the Microsoft fonts. To install these using zypper

sudo zypper in fetchmsttfonts pullin-msttf-fonts

To make the fonts installed above work, as the paths are hardcoded for Ubuntu, create symlinks to the appropriate locations:

sudo mkdir -p /usr/share/fonts/truetype/msttcorefonts

sudo ln -s /usr/share/fonts/truetype/arial.ttf /usr/share/fonts/truetype/msttcorefonts/Arial.ttf

sudo ln -s /usr/share/fonts/truetype/arialbd.ttf /usr/share/fonts/truetype/msttcorefonts/Arial_Bold.ttf

sudo ln -s /usr/share/fonts/truetype/arialbi.ttf /usr/share/fonts/truetype/msttcorefonts/Arial_Bold_Italic.ttf

sudo ln -s /usr/share/fonts/truetype/ariali.ttf /usr/share/fonts/truetype/msttcorefonts/Arial_Italic.ttf

sudo ln -s /usr/share/fonts/truetype/comic.ttf /usr/share/fonts/truetype/msttcorefonts/Comic_Sans_MS.ttf

sudo ln -s /usr/share/fonts/truetype/comicbd.ttf /usr/share/fonts/truetype/msttcorefonts/Comic_Sans_MS_Bold.ttf

sudo ln -s /usr/share/fonts/truetype/cour.ttf /usr/share/fonts/truetype/msttcorefonts/Courier_New.ttf

sudo ln -s /usr/share/fonts/truetype/courbd.ttf /usr/share/fonts/truetype/msttcorefonts/Courier_New_Bold.ttf

sudo ln -s /usr/share/fonts/truetype/courbi.ttf /usr/share/fonts/truetype/msttcorefonts/Courier_New_Bold_Italic.ttf

sudo ln -s /usr/share/fonts/truetype/couri.ttf /usr/share/fonts/truetype/msttcorefonts/Courier_New_Italic.ttf

sudo ln -s /usr/share/fonts/truetype/impact.ttf /usr/share/fonts/truetype/msttcorefonts/Impact.ttf

sudo ln -s /usr/share/fonts/truetype/times.ttf /usr/share/fonts/truetype/msttcorefonts/Times_New_Roman.ttf

sudo ln -s /usr/share/fonts/truetype/timesbd.ttf /usr/share/fonts/truetype/msttcorefonts/Times_New_Roman_Bold.ttf

sudo ln -s /usr/share/fonts/truetype/timesbi.ttf /usr/share/fonts/truetype/msttcorefonts/Times_New_Roman_Bold_Italic.ttf

sudo ln -s /usr/share/fonts/truetype/timesi.ttf /usr/share/fonts/truetype/msttcorefonts/Times_New_Roman_Italic.ttf

sudo ln -s /usr/share/fonts/truetype/verdana.ttf /usr/share/fonts/truetype/msttcorefonts/Verdana.ttf

sudo ln -s /usr/share/fonts/truetype/verdanab.ttf /usr/share/fonts/truetype/msttcorefonts/Verdana_Bold.ttf

sudo ln -s /usr/share/fonts/truetype/verdanai.ttf /usr/share/fonts/truetype/msttcorefonts/Verdana_Italic.ttf

sudo ln -s /usr/share/fonts/truetype/verdanaz.ttf /usr/share/fonts/truetype/msttcorefonts/Verdana_Bold_Italic.ttf

The Ubuntu package sun-java6-fonts contains a subset of Java of the fonts used. Since this package requires Java as a prerequisite anyway, we can do the same thing by just installing the equivalent openSUSE Sun Java package:

sudo zypper in java-1_6_0-sun

WebKit is currently hard-linked to the Microsoft fonts. To install these using zypper

sudo zypper in fetchmsttfonts pullin-msttf-fonts

To make the fonts installed above work, as the paths are hardcoded for Ubuntu, create symlinks to the appropriate locations:

sudo mkdir -p /usr/share/fonts/truetype/msttcorefonts

sudo ln -s /usr/share/fonts/truetype/arial.ttf /usr/share/fonts/truetype/msttcorefonts/Arial.ttf

sudo ln -s /usr/share/fonts/truetype/arialbd.ttf /usr/share/fonts/truetype/msttcorefonts/Arial_Bold.ttf

sudo ln -s /usr/share/fonts/truetype/arialbi.ttf /usr/share/fonts/truetype/msttcorefonts/Arial_Bold_Italic.ttf

sudo ln -s /usr/share/fonts/truetype/ariali.ttf /usr/share/fonts/truetype/msttcorefonts/Arial_Italic.ttf

sudo ln -s /usr/share/fonts/truetype/comic.ttf /usr/share/fonts/truetype/msttcorefonts/Comic_Sans_MS.ttf

sudo ln -s /usr/share/fonts/truetype/comicbd.ttf /usr/share/fonts/truetype/msttcorefonts/Comic_Sans_MS_Bold.ttf

sudo ln -s /usr/share/fonts/truetype/cour.ttf /usr/share/fonts/truetype/msttcorefonts/Courier_New.ttf

sudo ln -s /usr/share/fonts/truetype/courbd.ttf /usr/share/fonts/truetype/msttcorefonts/Courier_New_Bold.ttf

sudo ln -s /usr/share/fonts/truetype/courbi.ttf /usr/share/fonts/truetype/msttcorefonts/Courier_New_Bold_Italic.ttf

sudo ln -s /usr/share/fonts/truetype/couri.ttf /usr/share/fonts/truetype/msttcorefonts/Courier_New_Italic.ttf

sudo ln -s /usr/share/fonts/truetype/impact.ttf /usr/share/fonts/truetype/msttcorefonts/Impact.ttf

sudo ln -s /usr/share/fonts/truetype/times.ttf /usr/share/fonts/truetype/msttcorefonts/Times_New_Roman.ttf

sudo ln -s /usr/share/fonts/truetype/timesbd.ttf /usr/share/fonts/truetype/msttcorefonts/Times_New_Roman_Bold.ttf

sudo ln -s /usr/share/fonts/truetype/timesbi.ttf /usr/share/fonts/truetype/msttcorefonts/Times_New_Roman_Bold_Italic.ttf

sudo ln -s /usr/share/fonts/truetype/timesi.ttf /usr/share/fonts/truetype/msttcorefonts/Times_New_Roman_Italic.ttf

sudo ln -s /usr/share/fonts/truetype/verdana.ttf /usr/share/fonts/truetype/msttcorefonts/Verdana.ttf

sudo ln -s /usr/share/fonts/truetype/verdanab.ttf /usr/share/fonts/truetype/msttcorefonts/Verdana_Bold.ttf

sudo ln -s /usr/share/fonts/truetype/verdanai.ttf /usr/share/fonts/truetype/msttcorefonts/Verdana_Italic.ttf

sudo ln -s /usr/share/fonts/truetype/verdanaz.ttf /usr/share/fonts/truetype/msttcorefonts/Verdana_Bold_Italic.ttf

And then for the Java fonts:

sudo mkdir -p /usr/share/fonts/truetype/ttf-lucida

sudo find /usr/lib*/jvm/java-1.6.*-sun-*/jre/lib -iname ‘*.ttf’ -print \
-exec ln -s {} /usr/share/fonts/truetype/ttf-lucida \;