systemd-resolve – Resolve domain names, IPV4 and IPv6 addresses, DNS resource records, and services


systemd-resolve [OPTIONS…] HOSTNAME…

systemd-resolve [OPTIONS…] ADDRESS…

systemd-resolve [OPTIONS…] –type=TYPE DOMAIN…

systemd-resolve [OPTIONS…] –service [[NAME] TYPE] DOMAIN

systemd-resolve [OPTIONS…] –openpgp USER@DOMAIN

systemd-resolve [OPTIONS…] –tlsa DOMAIN[:PORT]

systemd-resolve [OPTIONS…] –statistics

systemd-resolve [OPTIONS…] –reset-statistics


systemd-resolve may be used to resolve domain names, IPv4 and IPv6 addresses, DNS resource records and services with the systemd-resolved.service(8) resolver service. By default, the specified list of parameters will be

resolved as hostnames, retrieving their IPv4 and IPv6 addresses. If the parameters specified are formatted as IPv4 or IPv6 operation the reverse operation is done, and a hostname is retrieved for the specified addresses.

The program’s output contains information about the protocol used for the look-up and on which network interface the data was discovered. It also contains information on whether the information could be authenticated. All

data for which local DNSSEC validation succeeds is considered authenticated. Moreover all data originating from local, trusted sources is also reported authenticated, including resolution of the local host name, the

“localhost” host name or all data from /etc/hosts.

The –type= switch may be used to specify a DNS resource record type (A, AAAA, SOA, MX, …) in order to request a specific DNS resource record, instead of the address or reverse address lookups. The special value “help” may

be used to list known values.

The –service switch may be used to resolve SRV[1] and DNS-SD[2] services (see below). In this mode, between one and three arguments are required. If three parameters are passed the first is assumed to be the DNS-SD service

name, the second the SRV service type, and the third the domain to search in. In this case a full DNS-SD style SRV and TXT lookup is executed. If only two parameters are specified, the first is assumed to be the SRV service

type, and the second the domain to look in. In this case no TXT RR is requested. Finally, if only one parameter is specified, it is assumed to be a domain name, that is already prefixed with an SRV type, and an SRV lookup is

done (no TXT).

The –openpgp switch may be used to query PGP keys stored as OPENPGPKEY[3] resource records. When this option is specified one or more e-mail address must be specified.

The –tlsa switch maybe be used to query TLS public keys stored as TLSA[4] resource records. When this option is specified one or more domain names must be specified.

The –statistics switch may be used to show resolver statistics, including information about the number of successful and failed DNSSEC validations.

The –reset-statistics may be used to reset various statistics counters maintained the resolver, including those shown in the –statistics output. This operation requires root privileges.


-4, -6
By default, when resolving a hostname, both IPv4 and IPv6 addresses are acquired. By specifying -4 only IPv4 addresses are requested, by specifying -6 only IPv6 addresses are requested.

Specifies the network interface to execute the query on. This may either be specified as numeric interface index or as network interface string (e.g. “en0”). Note that this option has no effect if system-wide DNS

configuration (as configured in /etc/resolv.conf or /etc/systemd/resolve.conf) in place of per-link configuration is used.

Specifies the network protocol for the query. May be one of “dns” (i.e. classic unicast DNS), “llmnr” (Link-Local Multicast Name Resolution[5]), “llmnr-ipv4”, “llmnr-ipv6” (LLMNR via the indicated underlying IP

protocols). By default the lookup is done via all protocols suitable for the lookup. If used, limits the set of protocols that may be used. Use this option multiple times to enable resolving via multiple protocols at the

same time. The setting “llmnr” is identical to specifying this switch once with “llmnr-ipv4” and once via “llmnr-ipv6”. Note that this option does not force the service to resolve the operation with the specified

protocol, as that might require a suitable network interface and configuration. The special value “help” may be used to list known values.

-t TYPE, –type=TYPE, -c CLASS, –class=CLASS
Specifies the DNS resource record type (e.g. A, AAAA, MX, …) and class (e.g. IN, ANY, …) to look up. If these options are used a DNS resource record set matching the specified class and type is requested. The class

defaults to IN if only a type is specified. The special value “help” may be used to list known values.

Enables service resolution. This enables DNS-SD and simple SRV service resolution, depending on the specified list of parameters (see above).

Takes a boolean parameter. If true (the default), when doing a service lookup with –service the hostnames contained in the SRV resource records are resolved as well.

Takes a boolean parameter. If true (the default), when doing a DNS-SD service lookup with –service the TXT service metadata record is resolved as well.

Enables OPENPGPKEY resource record resolution (see above). Specified e-mail addresses are converted to the corresponding DNS domain name, and any OPENPGPKEY keys are printed.

Enables TLSA resource record resolution (see above). A query will be performed for each of the specified names prefixed with the port and family (“_port._family.domain”). The port number may be specified after a colon

(“:”), otherwise 443 will be used by default. The family may be specified as an argument after –tlsa, otherwise tcp will be used.

Takes a boolean parameter. If true (the default), DNS CNAME or DNAME redirections are followed. Otherwise, if a CNAME or DNAME record is encountered while resolving, an error is returned.

Takes a boolean parameter. If true (the default), any specified single-label hostnames will be searched in the domains configured in the search domain list, if it is non-empty. Otherwise, the search domain logic is


Dump the answer as binary data. If there is no argument or if the argument is “payload”, the payload of the packet is exported. If the argument is “packet”, the whole packet is dumped in wire format, prefixed by length

specified as a little-endian 64-bit number. This format allows multiple packets to be dumped and unambigously parsed.

Takes a boolean parameter. If true (the default), column headers and meta information about the query response are shown. Otherwise, this output is suppressed.

If specified general resolver statistics are shown, including information whether DNSSEC is enabled and available, as well as resolution and validation statistics.

Resets the statistics counters shown in –statistics to zero.

Flushes all DNS resource record caches the service maintains locally.

Shows the global and per-link DNS settings in currently in effect.

-h, –help
Print a short help text and exit.

Print a short version string and exit.

Do not pipe output into a pager.


Example 1. Retrieve the addresses of the “www.0pointer.net” domain

$ systemd-resolve www.0pointer.net

www.0pointer.net: 2a01:238:43ed:c300:10c3:bcf3:3266:da74

— Information acquired via protocol DNS in 611.6ms.

— Data is authenticated: no

Example 2. Retrieve the domain of the “” IP address

$ systemd-resolve gardel.0pointer.net

— Information acquired via protocol DNS in 1.2997s.

— Data is authenticated: no

Example 3. Retrieve the MX record of the “yahoo.com” domain

$ systemd-resolve -t MX yahoo.com –legend=no

yahoo.com. IN MX 1 mta7.am0.yahoodns.net

yahoo.com. IN MX 1 mta6.am0.yahoodns.net

yahoo.com. IN MX 1 mta5.am0.yahoodns.net

Example 4. Resolve an SRV service

$ systemd-resolve –service _xmpp-server._tcp gmail.com

_xmpp-server._tcp/gmail.com: alt1.xmpp-server.l.google.com:5269 [priority=20, weight=0]

alt4.xmpp-server.l.google.com:5269 [priority=20, weight=0]

Example 5. Retrieve a PGP key

$ systemd-resolve –openpgp

d08ee310438ca124a6149ea5cc21b6313b390dce485576eff96f8722._openpgpkey.fedoraproject.org. IN OPENPGPKEY


Example 6. Retrieve a TLS key (“=tcp” and “:443” could be skipped)

$ systemd-resolve –tlsa=tcp fedoraproject.org:443

_443._tcp.fedoraproject.org IN TLSA 0 0 1 19400be5b7a31fb733917700789d2f0a2471c0c9d506c0e504c06c16d7cb17c0
— Cert. usage: CA constraint

— Selector: Full Certificate

— Matching type: SHA-256


systemd(1), systemd-resolved.service(8)


1. SRV




5. Link-Local Multicast Name Resolution


  • man 1 systemd-resolve, Version systemd 232


  • 07/26/2018 创建文章