「Chapter 13」- 副词从句

  CREATED BY JENKINSBOT

副词从句是三种从属从句(名词、形容词、副词从句)中最简单的一种。它与主要从句之间,有点像对等从句的关系,很容易了解。副词从句因为结构十分单纯,所以学习副词从句的重点只是在认识各种连接词,以便写作时可以选择贴切的连接词来表达各种逻辑关系。

副词从句与对等从句的比较

  1. Because[从属连接词] he needs the money[副词从句], he works hard[主要从句].(因为他缺钱,所以他勤奋工作。)

  1. He needs the money[对等从句], and[对等连接词] he works hard[对等从句].(他需要钱,也勤奋工作。)

(1)是分成主、从的复句结构。其中副词从句 he needs the money 和主要从句 he works hard 分别都是完整、独立的简单句,以一个连接词连起来。这和(2)中两个对等从句的情形完全相同。唯一的差别是对等从句(2)使用对等连接词 and,连接起来的两个从句地位相等,没有主从之分,也不需互相解释。副词从句(1)则使用从属连接词 because,使得 because he needs the money 成为从属地位的从句,当作副词使用,用来修饰主要从句中的动词 works(交待 works hard 的原因)。除了这一层修饰关系之外,副词从句和对等从句同样单纯。

副词从句与名词从句的比较

  1. The Witness[S] said[V] that[连接词] he saw the whole thing[O(名词从句)].(证人说他目睹了事情发生的全过程。)

  1. The witness[S] said[V] this[O], though[连接词] he didn’t really see it[副词从句].(证人这样说,尽管他没有真正看到。)

副词从句和名词从句就有较大的差别。

两者的共同点

首先,两者原来都是完整、独立的简单句。(1)中的 he saw the whole thing 与(2)中的 he didn’t really see it。

然后,两者都是加上从属连接词构成从属从句,但是由此开始有了差别。

两者的不同点

第一个差别是:使用的连接词不同,一个有意义,一个无意义。名词从句加的连接词是 that,表示“那件事情”,此外没有别的意义。副词从句加的连接词,如(2)的 though,以及上节例子中的 because 等等,都是有意义的连接词,表达两句话之间的逻辑关系:though 表示让步,because 表示原因,if 表示条件。

第二个差别是:名词从句属于名词类,要放在主要从句中的名词位置使用,副词从句则不然。(1)中主要从句 The witness said 部分尚不完整,在及物动词 said 之后还要有个名词当宾语,构成 S+V+O 的句型才算完成。取一个独立的简单句 He saw the whole thing 外加上没有意义的连接词 that,造成一个名词从句,就可以放入主要从句 The witness said 后面的宾语位置使用,成为(1)的形状。

副词从句情况不同。它是修饰语的词类,要附在一个完整的主要从句上作修饰语使用。如(2)He didn’t really see it 是完整的单句,外面加上表示让步的连接词 though 构成副词从句。主要从句 The witness said this 已经是完整的句子(S+O+V),把副词从句 though he didn’t really see it 直接附上去,当作副词,用来修饰动词 said。因为两个从句都是完整的简单句,所以说其间的关系很像对等从句的关系。这是副词从句与名词从句第二个重要的差别。

副词从句的种类

以下按照各种逻辑关系把副词从句的连接词大略分类。

一、时间、地方

  1. He became more frugal after[连接词] he got married[副词从句].(他结婚以后变得比较节俭。)

副词从句修饰动词 became 的时间。

  1. I’ll be waiting for you until[连接词] you’re married[副词从句].(我会等你,直到你结婚为止。)

副词从句修饰动词 will be waiting 的时间。

附带说明一下:未来时间的副词从句,虽然还没有到发生的时间,可是语气上必须当作“到了那个时候”来说,所以时态要用现在式来表示(如(2)中的are married)。这是属于语气的问题,在 从前介绍语气的单元中曾说明过。

  1. It was all over when[连接词] I got there[副词从句].(我赶到的时候事情都结束了。)

副词从句修饰动词 was 的时间。

when 这个连接词,也可以当做关系词来使用,这点留待下一章讲到关系从句时再详细说明。

  1. A small town grew where[连接词] three roads met[副词从句].(一个小镇在三条路交会处发展起来。)

副词从句修饰动词 grew 的地方。

同样的,where这个连接词也可以当作关系词来解释。

二、条件

  1. If[连接词] he calls[副词从句]. I’ll say you’re sleeping.(如果他打电话来,我就说你在睡觉。)

副词从句修饰动词 will say 的条件 —— 如果打来就会说,不打来就不说了。

在表示条件的副词从句中,如果时间是未来,也必须以“当作真正发生”的语气来说,所以要用现在式的动词。同时请注意 say 的宾语(名词从句)you’re sleeping 也用现在式,因为这是当作已经打来了,自然要说“在睡觉”,而不是“要去睡觉”(will be sleeping)。只有主要从句 I’ll say 用未来式的动词,因为如果打来了“就会”说,这表示现在还没说!

  1. He won’t have it his way, as long as[连接词] I’m here[副词从句].(只要我在,不会让他称心如意。)

副词从句修饰动词 won’t have 的条件。

as long as 也可以用比较级来诠释。

  1. Suppose[连接词] you were ill[副词从句], where would you go?(假定你生病了,你会到哪里去?)

副词从句修饰动词 would go 的条件。
suppose 本来是动词,这个副词从句原来是 supposing that you were ill 的句型,经过省略后才成为只剩 suppose 一字当连接词用。同时请注意例3中两个动词都是非事实的假设语气。

三、原因、结果

  1. As[连接词] there isn’t much time left[副词从句], we might as well call it a day.(既然时间所剩无几,我们不妨就此结束好了。)

副词从句修饰动词 might call 的原因。

  1. There’s nothing to worry about, now that[连接词] Father is back[副词从句].(既然父亲回来了,就没什么好担心了。)

副词从句修饰动词 is 的原因。

请注意:简单句前面加上一个单独的、没有意义的 that,会成为名词从句(指“那件事”)。可是 that 一旦配合其他字眼当作连接词、具有表达逻辑关系的功能时,就成了副词从句的连接词,引导的是副词从句。now that 解释为”既然”,用来表达原因,所以它 后面的 Father is back 就成了副词从句。

  1. He looked so sincere that[连接词(so…that)] no one doubted his story[副词从句].(他看起来是那么诚恳,所以没有人怀疑他说的话。)

副词从句修饰形容词 sincere 造成什么结果。

连接词so…that表示因果关系,所以引导的是副词从句。

  1. The mother locked the door from the outside, so that[连接词] the kids couldn’t get out when they saw fire[副词从句].

(这位妈妈把门反锁,所以小孩看到火起时也跑不出去。)

副词从句修饰动词 locked 造成什么结果。

连接词 so that 亦表示因果关系,所以引导的是副词从句。请注 意这个副词从句中又有一个表示时间的副词从句when they saw fire。

四、目的

  1. The mother locked away the drugs so that[连接词] the kids wouldn’t swallow any by mistake[副词从句].

(这位妈妈把药锁好,目的是不让小孩误食。)

副词从句修饰动词 locked 有什么目的。

同样是 so that 连接词,同样引导副词从句,但是这里用来表示目的。

  1. I’ve typed out the main points in boldface, in order that[连接词] you won’t miss them[副词从句].

(我用黑体字把重点打出来,好让你们不会遗漏掉。)

副词从句修饰动词 type out 有何目的。

同样的,这里的连接词不是单独、无意义的 that,而是表示目的 in order that,所以引导的是副词从句。

  1. I’ve underlined the key points, lest[连接词] you miss them[副词从句].(我已把重点画了线,以免你们把它们漏掉。)

副词从句修饰动词 have underlined 有何目的。

  1. You’d better bring more money, in case[连接词] you should need it[副词从句].(你最好多带点钱,万一要用。)

副词从句修饰动词 bring 的目的。

五、让步

  1. Although[连接词] you may object[副词从句], I must give it a try.(虽然你可能会反对,我仍然必须试试看。)

副词从句修饰动词 must give。

2.While[连接词] the disease is not fatal[副词从句], it can be very dangerous.(这虽然不是要命的病,不过也很危险。)

副词从句修饰动词 can be。

  1. Wh-拼法的连接词,若解释为 No matter…(不论),就表示让步语气,引导副词从句。
	__Whether (=No matter)__^{[连接词]} __you agree or not__^{[副词从句]}, I want to give it a try.
	(无论你是否同意,我都想试一试。)
	__Whoever (=No matter__^{[连接词]} __who) calls__^{[副词从句]}, I won't answer.
	(不管谁来电话,我都不接。)
	__Whichever (=No matter__^{[连接词]} __which) way you go__^{[副词从句]}, I'll follow.
	(不论你走到哪里,我都跟定你了。)
	__However (=No matter__^{[连接词]} __how) cold it is__^{[副词从句]}, he's always wearing a shirt only.
	(不管多冷,他总是只穿件衬衫。)
	__Wherever (=No matter__^{[连接词]} __where) he is__^{[副词从句]}, I'll get him!
	(不管他躲到哪儿,我都会抓到他!)
	__Whenever (=No matter__^{[连接词]} __when) you like__^{[副词从句]}, you can call me.
	(你随时給我来电话都可以。)

六、限制

  1. As far as[连接词] money is concerned[副词从句], you needn’t worry.(钱的方面你不必担心。)

副词从句修饰动词 needn’t worry,表示不必担心的事情是在某一方面,暗示也许是别的方面才要担心。

  1. Picasso was a revolutionary in that[连接词] he broke all traditions[副词从句].(毕加索是革命派,即他打破了一切传统。)

副词从句修饰动词 was,把“是革命派”的意思加以限制:在于打破传统,并非真的举枪起义。

连接词 in that 是由 in the sense that(从某种意义来说)省略而来。

七、方法、状态

  1. He played the piano as[连接词] Horowitz would have[副词从句].(他弹钢琴有如大师霍洛维兹。)

副词从句修饰动词 played —— 如何弹法。

  1. He writes as if[连接词] he is left handed[副词从句].(他写字像左撇子。)

He writes
as if
[连接词]
he were left handed
[副词从句].

He writes
as if
[连接词]
he was left handed
[副词从句].

上面三句中,用 is 表示他应该真的是左撇子,用were表示他不是,只是冒充左撇子,用 was 则表示不一定 —— 可能是,也可能不是。三句话都是用连接词 as if 引导后面的副词从句,修饰动词 writes —— “如何写法”。

结语

副词从句是最简单的从属从句,由完整的简单句外加有意义的、表达逻辑关系的连接词(because、if、although等等)所构成。它附在一个完整的主要从句上作修饰语(修饰动词最为常见),两个从句(主、从)之间的关系类似对等从句。以上整理的副词从句连接词并不完整,只挑出有代表性和值得注意的副词从句连接词来作分类。读者可利用以上的分类去观察,加上广泛的阅读,以扩充自己认识的、会用的副词从句连接词。

介绍完名词从句与副词从句后,相信读者已充分掌握了这两种从句的特色。如果再征服比较困难的形容词从句(又称关系从句), 就可以全盘了解复句结构了。

Test

请选出最适当的答案填入空格内,以使句子完整。

  1. Please come back ( ) you finish your work.

(A)as soon as
(B)as soon as possible
(C)as possibly soon
(D)as soon possible

空格前后分别是完整的独立从句,中间只需要连接词,如 A,把后面的从句改为副词从句。B 的 as soon as possible 已经是 一个从句(as soon as it is possible的简化),不再是连接词。C 和 D 都不是完整的连接词。

  1. Which of the following is correct?

(A)He is very smart; moreover, he is diligent.
(B)He is very smart, moreover, he is diligent.
(C)He is very smart, Moreover, he is diligent.
(D)He is very smart; and moreover, he is diligent.

moreover 是副词,不具连接词的语法功能,所以要用分号(;)来取代连接词。

  1. It is not safe to get off a car ( ).

(A)unless it is in motion
(B)until it has come to a stop
(C)after you have opened the window
(D)before the traffic light turns red

四个答案在语法上都对,句意则只有 B 合理:“除非车子停稳 了,否则下车不安全。”

  1. If you sell your rice now, you will be playing your hand very badly. Wait ( ) the price goes up.

(A)until
(B)still
(C)for
(D)that

wait 一词构成一个命令句,与右边的 the price goes up之间要有连接词,故可排除非连接词的 B。答案 D 的 that 会把从句变成名词从句,不合词类要求。C 的 for 可以当连接词,不过要解释为 because,在此不通,只有 A 这个连接词是引导时间副词从句用的,符合要求。

  1. (The rain is over. You must not stay any longer.)

You must not stay any longer ( ) the rain is over.

(A)when
(B)that
(C)now that
(D)as for

now that 解释为“既然”,符合原意。

  1. It is such a good opportunity ( ) you should not miss it.

(A)as
(B)that
(C)which
(D)of which

上文有 such,因而要有 that 来配合,表示因果关系。

  1. Tom is dull. He works hard. He will surely pass the exam.

(A)Though Tom is dull, he works so hard that he will surely pass the exam.


(B)Despite his dullness, Tom will surely pass the exam by work hard.


(C)Tom will surely pass the exam because he works hard with his dullness.


(D)Dull as Tom is, he will surely pass the exam with work hard.

句一和句二有相反关系,句二和句三有因果关系,因而分别用 though 和 so…that 来连接。B 中的 by work hard 错在以动词 work 直接放在介系词后面。C 中的 he works hard with his dullness 句意十分牵强。D 与 B 相同,也是错在把动词(work) 直接放在介系词(with)后面。

  1. She had worked several years ( ) she could continue her studies in France.

(A)as


(B)while

(C)before


(D)then

had worked 是过去完成式,could continue 是过去简单式,这是时间先后顺序,因而用 before„

  1. ( ), he never begged for money.

(A)Despite he was poor
(B)Because he was poor
(C)Poor as he was
(D)In spite of he was poor

Though he was poor 可改写为 Poor as he was,注意连接词现在要用 as。A 和 D 都是用介系词(despite 和 in spite of)来引导从句,属语法错误。B 的句型正确,但逻辑关系不通顺。

  1. ( ) the typhoon warnings, several fishing boats set sail.

(A)Because
(B)According
(C)Despite
(D)Although

名词短语 the typhoon warnings 前面应有介系词(只有 C 是)。

  1. I knew I would never have what I needed ( ) it myself.

(A)even made
(B)without me making
(C)except making
(D)unless I made

空格中要表示“条件”,因而 C 不适合。A 多一个动词,文法错误。B 应该省略掉与主语重复的 me。D 是以 unless 的副词从句表示条件,符合要求。

  1. Which of the following is correct?

(A)I shall either go back to Taiwan or my family will come to England.


(B)I shall go back either to Taiwan or my family will come to England.

(C)Either I shall go back to Taiwan or my family will come to England.

either 和 or 之间的部分要和 or 之后的部分对称。符合条件的只有 C(从句对从句),其余答案在词类上都不对称。

  1. ( ) unwilling to do so, he had to follow the traditional ways.

(A)After
(B)Although
(C)Since
(D)Once

unwilling 和 had to 意思上相反,只有 although 可表示相反的关系。答案 B 是 although he was unwilling… 的简化。

  1. Which of the following is correct?

(A)Not only the money but also three paintings was stolen.
(B)Not only the money but also three paintings were stolen.
(C)Not only the money was stolen but also were the paintings.

not only 和 but also 亦要求对称。A 虽然有对称,但是动词 was 和主语 three paintings 在单复数上有冲突,而C中应倒 装的是 not only was the money stolen,不是后面的从句。

  1. No one was sure ( ) was going to happen.

(A)what
(B)who
(C)when
(D)where

这个位置要用连接词,又要能当 was 的主语,所以要用关系代名词类(A 或 B)。因为它前面没有先行词,不能用 who,只能用 what,故选 A。what was going to happen 亦可作疑问句类的名词从句看待。

  1. she studied hard, but she didn’t succeed.

(A)Though
(B)Although
(C)Indeed
(D)While

两个从句间已有连接词 but,不能再用连接词(A、B 和 D 都是),只剩下一个副词类的 C。

  1. You seem angry at Martha.

“I am. ( ) I’m concerned, she can go away forever.”

(A)As like as
(B)As many as
(C)As such as
(D)As far as

这个位置要用连接词。D 是表示限度的从属连接词,符合要求。B 的 as many as 则要配合复数名词才能使用。

  1. I’m going to tell you the number once more, ( ) you forget.

(A)don’t
(B)that
(C)so that
(D)lest

这个位置要用连接词,故排除 A。B 会造成名词从句,不合句型要求。C 和 D 都是副词从句连接词,但只有D的 lest(以免……)符合逻辑关系。

  1. The mother’s warning ( ) there be no contact with boys was generally ignored.

(A)which
(B)that
(C)if
(D)wherever

从下文的 there be no contact… 来看,是间接命令句语气,应为名词从句,故选择 B。

  1. Don’t go away ( ) you have told me what actually happened.

(A)since
(B)then
(C)after
(D)until

这个位置连接两个从句,要用连接词(A、C 或 D),从意思判断用 D 较合理。