xmonad – a tiling window manager


xmonad is a minimalist tiling window manager for X, written in Haskell. Windows are managed using automatic

layout algorithms, which can be dynamically reconfigured. At any time windows are arranged so as to maximize

the use of screen real estate. All features of the window manager are accessible purely from the keyboard: a

mouse is entirely optional. xmonad is configured in Haskell, and custom layout algorithms may be implemented

by the user in config files. A principle of xmonad is predictability: the user should know in advance pre‐

cisely the window arrangement that will result from any action.

By default, xmonad provides three layout algorithms: tall, wide and fullscreen. In tall or wide mode, win‐

dows are tiled and arranged to prevent overlap and maximize screen use. Sets of windows are grouped together

on virtual screens, and each screen retains its own layout, which may be reconfigured dynamically. Multiple

physical monitors are supported via Xinerama, allowing simultaneous display of a number of screens.

By utilizing the expressivity of a modern functional language with a rich static type system, xmonad provides

a complete, featureful window manager in less than 1200 lines of code, with an emphasis on correctness and

robustness. Internal properties of the window manager are checked using a combination of static guarantees

provided by the type system, and type-based automated testing. A benefit of this is that the code is simple

to understand, and easy to modify.


xmonad places each window into a “workspace”. Each workspace can have any number of windows, which you can

cycle though with mod-j and mod-k. Windows are either displayed full screen, tiled horizontally, or tiled

vertically. You can toggle the layout mode with mod-space, which will cycle through the available modes.

You can switch to workspace N with mod-N. For example, to switch to workspace 5, you would press mod-5.

Similarly, you can move the current window to another workspace with mod-shift-N.

When running with multiple monitors (Xinerama), each screen has exactly 1 workspace visible. mod-{w,e,r}

switch the focus between screens, while shift-mod-{w,e,r} move the current window to that screen. When xmon‐

ad starts, workspace 1 is on screen 1, workspace 2 is on screen 2, etc. When switching workspaces to one

that is already visible, the current and visible workspaces are swapped.




使用xmonad替换当前的Window Manager


Default keyboard bindings

Launch terminal

mod-p Launch dmenu

Launch gmrun

Close the focused window

Rotate through the available layout algorithms

Reset the layouts on the current workspace to default

mod-n Resize viewed windows to the correct size

Move focus to the next window

Move focus to the previous window

mod-j Move focus to the next window

mod-k Move focus to the previous window

mod-m Move focus to the master window

Swap the focused window and the master window

Swap the focused window with the next window

Swap the focused window with the previous window

mod-h Shrink the master area

mod-l Expand the master area

mod-t Push window back into tiling

Increment the number of windows in the master area

Deincrement the number of windows in the master area

Quit xmonad

mod-q Restart xmonad

Run xmessage with a summary of the default keybindings (useful for beginners)

Switch to workspace N

Move client to workspace N

Switch to physical/Xinerama screens 1, 2, or 3

Move client to screen 1, 2, or 3

Set the window to floating mode and move by dragging

Raise the window to the top of the stack

Set the window to floating mode and resize by dragging


To use xmonad as your window manager add to your ~/.xinitrc file:

exec xmonad


xmonad is customized in ~/.xmonad/xmonad.hs, and then restarted with mod-q.

You can find many extensions to the core feature set in the xmonad- contrib package, available through your

package manager or from xmonad.org (http://xmonad.org).

Modular Configuration

As of xmonad-0.9, any additional Haskell modules may be placed in ~/.xmonad/lib/ are available in GHC’s

searchpath. Hierarchical modules are supported: for example, the file ~/.xmonad/lib/XMonad/Stack/MyAddi‐

tions.hs could contain:

module XMonad.Stack.MyAdditions (function1) where
function1 = error “function1: Not implemented yet!”

Your xmonad.hs may then import XMonad.Stack.MyAdditions as if that module was contained within xmonad or