git-pull – Fetch from and integrate with another repository or a local branch
pull is shorthand for git fetch followed by git merge FETCH_HEAD.
the retrieved branch heads into the current branch. With –rebase, it runs git rebase instead
of git merge.
name an arbitrary remote ref (for example, the name of a tag) or even a collection of refs with
corresponding remote-tracking branches (e.g., refs/heads/*:refs/remotes/origin/*), but usually
it is the name of a branch in the remote repository.
configuration for the current branch as set by git-branch(1) –track.
origin/master in your repository
diverged from the local master (i.e., E) until its current commit (C) on top of master and
record the result in a new commit along with the names of the two parent commits and a log
message from the user describing the changes.
versions of Git, running git pull with uncommitted changes is discouraged: while possible, it
leaves you in a state that may be hard to back out of in the case of a conflict.
automatically cancelled and the work tree untouched. It is generally best to get any local
changes in working order before pulling or stash them away with git-stash(1).
underlying git-merge to squelch output during merging.
git-config(1) and gitmodules(5)). That might be necessary to get the data needed for
merging submodule commits, a feature Git learned in 1.7.3. Notice that the result of a
merge will not be checked out in the submodule, “git submodule update” has to be called
afterwards to bring the work tree up to date with the merge result.
Options related to merging
give the user a chance to inspect and further tweak the merge result before committing.
auto-generated merge message, so that the user can explain and justify the merge. The
–no-edit option can be used to accept the auto-generated message (this is generally
merge log message. They will see an editor opened when they run git merge. To make it
easier to adjust such scripts to the updated behaviour, the environment variable
GIT_MERGE_AUTOEDIT can be set to no at the beginning of them.
a merge commit. This is the default behavior.
behaviour when merging an annotated (and possibly signed) tag.
up-to-date or the merge can be resolved as a fast-forward.
most <n> actual commits that are being merged. See also git-fmt-merge-msg(1).
configuration option merge.stat.
information), but do not actually make a commit, move the HEAD, or record
$GIT_DIR/MERGE_HEAD (to cause the next git commit command to create a merge commit). This
allows you to create a single commit on top of the current branch whose effect is the same
as merging another branch (or more in case of an octopus).
they should be tried. If there is no -s option, a built-in list of strategies is used
instead (git merge-recursive when merging a single head, git merge-octopus otherwise).
merge in case they do not.
is a remote-tracking branch corresponding to the upstream branch and the upstream branch
was rebased since last fetched, the rebase uses that information to avoid rebasing
locally created merge commits will not be flattened.
want to make git pull always use –rebase instead of merging.
This is a potentially dangerous mode of operation. It rewrites history, which does not
bode well when you published that history already. Do not use this option unless you
have read git-rebase(1) carefully.
Options related to fetching
.git/FETCH_HEAD. Without this option old data in .git/FETCH_HEAD will be overwritten.
history. If fetching to a shallow repository created by git clone with –depth=<depth>
option (see git-clone(1)), deepen or shorten the history to the specified number of
commits. Tags for the deepened commits are not fetched.
removing all the limitations imposed by shallow repositories.
repository has the same history as the source repository.
updating .git/shallow. This option updates .git/shallow and accept such refs.
branch <lbranch> unless the remote branch <rbranch> it fetches is a descendant of
<lbranch>. This option overrides that check.
fetched and stored locally. This option disables this automatic tag following. The default
behavior for a remote may be specified with the remote.<name>.tagOpt setting. See git-
This flag disables the check. This is purely for the internal use for git pull to
communicate with git fetch, and unless you are implementing your own Porcelain you are not
supposed to use it.
–exec=<upload-pack> is passed to the command to specify non-default path for the command
run on the other end.
a terminal, unless -q is specified. This flag forces progress status even if the standard
error stream is not directed to a terminal.
be either a URL (see the section GIT URLS below) or the name of a remote (see the section
the command line, the refs to fetch are read from remote.<repository>.fetch variables
instead (see git-fetch(1)).
<src>, followed by a colon :, followed by the destination ref <dst>. The colon can be
omitted when <dst> is empty.
everything up to the given tag.
ref that matches it is fast-forwarded using <src>. If the optional plus + is used, the
local ref is updated even if it does not result in a fast-forward update.
When the remote branch you want to fetch is known to be rewound and rebased regularly,
it is expected that its new tip will not be descendant of its previous tip (as stored
in your remote-tracking branch the last time you fetched). You would want to use the +
sign to indicate non-fast-forward updates will be needed for such branches. There is no
way to determine or declare that a branch will be made available in a repository with
this behavior; the pulling user simply must know this is the expected usage pattern for
There is a difference between listing multiple <refspec> directly on git pull command
line and having multiple remote.<repository>.fetch entries in your configuration for a
<repository> and running a git pull command without any explicit <refspec> parameters.
<refspec>s listed explicitly on the command line are always merged into the current
branch after fetching. In other words, if you list more than one remote ref, git pull
will create an Octopus merge. On the other hand, if you do not list any explicit
<refspec> parameter on the command line, git pull will fetch all the <refspec>s it
finds in the remote.<repository>.fetch configuration and merge only the first <refspec>
found into the current branch. This is because making an Octopus from remote refs is
rarely done, while keeping track of multiple remote heads in one-go by fetching more
than one is often useful.
server, and the path to the repository. Depending on the transport protocol, some of this
information may be absent.
fetching and rsync can be used for fetching and pushing, but these are inefficient and
deprecated; do not use them).
on unsecured networks.
differentiate a local path that contains a colon. For example the local path foo:bar could be
specified as an absolute path or ./foo:bar to avoid being misinterpreted as an ssh url.
option. See git-clone(1) for details.
remote-<transport> remote helper, if one exists. To explicitly request a remote helper, the
following syntax may be used:
the specific remote helper being invoked. See gitremote-helpers(1) for details.
different format for them (such that the URLs you use will be rewritten into URLs that work),
you can create a configuration section of the form:
insteadOf = work:
that takes a URL to be ”
git://example.org/path/to/repo.git” will be rewritten to
ssh://example.org/path/to/repo.git” for pushes, but pulls will still use the original URL.
a refspec which git will use by default.
Named remote in configuration file
remote(1), git-config(1) or even by a manual edit to the $GIT_DIR/config file. The URL of this
remote will be used to access the repository. The refspec of this remote will be used by
default when you do not provide a refspec on the command line. The entry in the config file
would appear like this:
pushurl = <pushurl>
push = <refspec>
fetch = <refspec>
Named file in $GIT_DIR/remotes
used to access the repository. The refspec in this file will be used as default when you do not
provide a refspec on the command line. This file should have the following format:
Push: and Pull: lines may be specified for additional branch mappings.
Named file in $GIT_DIR/branches
used to access the repository. This file should have the following format:
one on the command line. <branch> is the name of this file in $GIT_DIR/branches and <head>
defaults to master.
chosen with -s option. Some strategies can also take their own options, which can be passed by
giving -X<option> arguments to git merge and/or git pull.
from) using a 3-way merge algorithm. It tries to carefully detect criss-cross merge
ambiguities and is considered generally safe and fast.
common ancestor that can be used for 3-way merge, it creates a merged tree of the common
ancestors and uses that as the reference tree for the 3-way merge. This has been reported
to result in fewer merge conflicts without causing mismerges by tests done on actual merge
commits taken from Linux 2.6 kernel development history. Additionally this can detect and
handle merges involving renames. This is the default merge strategy when pulling or merging
version. Changes from the other tree that do not conflict with our side are reflected
to the merge result. For a binary file, the entire contents are taken from our side.
what the other tree contains at all. It discards everything the other tree did,
declaring our history contains all that happened in it.
sometimes occur due to unimportant matching lines (e.g., braces from distinct
functions). Use this when the branches to be merged have diverged wildly. See also git-
that occur due to unimportant matching lines (such as braces from distinct functions).
See also git-diff(1) –diff-algorithm.
a three-way merge. Whitespace changes mixed with other changes to a line are not
ignored. See also git-diff(1) -b, -w, and –ignore-space-at-eol.
a three-way merge. This option is meant to be used when merging branches with different
clean filters or end-of-line normalization rules. See “Merging branches with differing
checkin/checkout attributes” in gitattributes(5) for details.
guess on how two trees must be shifted to match with each other when merging. Instead,
the specified path is prefixed (or stripped from the beginning) to make the shape of
two trees to match.
manual resolution. It is primarily meant to be used for bundling topic branch heads
together. This is the default merge strategy when pulling or merging more than one branch.
the current branch head, effectively ignoring all changes from all other branches. It is
meant to be used to supersede old development history of side branches. Note that this is
different from the -Xours option to the recursive merge strategy.
subtree of A, B is first adjusted to match the tree structure of A, instead of reading the
trees at the same level. This adjustment is also done to the common ancestor tree.
made on both branches, but later reverted on one of the branches, that change will be present
in the merged result; some people find this behavior confusing. It occurs because only the
heads and the merge base are considered when performing a merge, not the individual commits.
The merge algorithm therefore considers the reverted change as no change at all, and
substitutes the changed version instead.
to saying git pull origin. However, when configuration branch.<name>.remote is present while on
branch <name>, that value is used instead of origin.
remote.<origin>.url is consulted and if there is not any such variable, the value on URL: `
line in `$GIT_DIR/remotes/<origin> file is used.
remote-tracking branches) when the command is run without any refspec parameters on the command
line, values of the configuration variable remote.<origin>.fetch are consulted, and if there
aren’t any, $GIT_DIR/remotes/<origin> file is consulted and its `Pull: ` lines are used. In
addition to the refspec formats described in the OPTIONS section, you can have a globbing
refspec that looks like this:
remote-tracking branches), and its LHS and RHS must end with /*. The above specifies that all
remote branches are tracked using remote-tracking branches in refs/remotes/origin/ hierarchy
under the same name.
not to break backward compatibility.
configuration or $GIT_DIR/remotes/<origin>. In such cases, the following rules apply:
- If branch.<name>.merge configuration for the current branch <name> exists, that is the name
- If the refspec is a globbing one, nothing is merged.
- Otherwise the remote branch of the first refspec is merged.
determined by the branch.<name>.remote and branch.<name>.merge options; see git-config(1)
remote-tracking branches. Using remote-tracking branches, the same can be done by invoking
fetch and merge:
$ git merge origin/next
recover with git reset.
now. When e.g. upstream added a new submodule in the just fetched commits of the superproject
the submodule itself can not be fetched, making it impossible to check out that submodule later
without having to do a fetch again. This is expected to be fixed in a future Git version.