「fvwm2」

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Fvwm,X11窗口管理器。

命令行语法格式(SYNOPSIS)

fvwm [-c config-command] [-d displayname] [-f config-file] [-r] [-s [screen_num]] [-V] [-C visual-class |
-I visual-id] [-l colors [-L] [-A] [-S] [-P]] [-D] [-h] [-i client-id] [-F state-file]

[–debug-stack-ring] [-blackout]

命令支持的选项及含义(OPTIONS)

These are the command line options that are recognized by fvwm:

-i | –clientid id
This option is used when fvwm is started by a session manager. Should not be used by a user.

-c | –cmd config-command
Causes fvwm to use config-command instead of ‘Read config’ (or ‘Read .fvwm2rc’) as its initialization

command. (Note that up to 10 -f and -c parameters can be given, and they are executed in the order

specified.)

Any module started by command line arguments is assumed to be a module that sends back config commands.

All command line modules have to quit before fvwm proceeds on to the StartFunction and setting border

decorations and styles. There is a potential deadlock if you start a module other than

FvwmCpp/FvwmM4/FvwmPerl but there is a timeout so fvwm eventually gets going.

As an example, starting the pager this way hangs fvwm until the timeout, but the following should work

well:

fvwm -c “AddToFunc StartFunction I Module FvwmPager”

-d | –display displayname
Manage the display called displayname instead of the name obtained from the environment variable

$DISPLAY.

-D | –debug
Puts X transactions in synchronous mode, which dramatically slows things down, but guarantees that fvwm’s

internal error messages are correct. Also causes fvwm to output debug messages while running.

-f config-file
Causes fvwm to read config-file instead of ~/.fvwm/config as its initialization file. This is equivalent

to -c ‘Read config-file’.

-h | –help
A short usage description is printed.

-r | –replace
Try to take over from a previously running wm. This does not work unless the other wm is ICCCM2 2.0

compliant.

-F | –restore state-file
This option is used when fvwm is started by a session manager. Should not be used by a user.

-s | –single-screen [screen_num]
On a multi-screen display, run fvwm only on the screen named in the $DISPLAY environment variable or

provided through the -d option. The optional argument screen_num should be positive or null and override

the screen number. Normally, fvwm attempts to start up on all screens of a multi-screen display.

-V | –version
Prints the version of fvwm to stderr. Also prints an information about the compiled in support for

readline, rplay, stroke, xpm, png, svg, GNOME hints, EWMH hints, session management, bidirectional text,

multibyte characters, xinerama and Xft aa font rendering.

-C | –visual visual-class
Causes fvwm to use visual-class for the window borders and menus. visual-class can be “StaticGray”,

“GrayScale”, “StaticColor”, “PseudoColor”, “TrueColor” or “DirectColor”.

-I | –visualid id
Causes fvwm to use id as the visual id for the window borders and menus. id can be specified as N for

decimal or 0xN for hexadecimal. See man page of xdpyinfo for a list of supported visuals.

-l | –color-limit limit
Specifies a limit on the colors used in image, gradient and possibly simple colors used by fvwm. In

fact, fvwm (and all the modules) uses a palette with at most limit colors. This option is only useful

with screens that display 256 colors (or less) with a dynamic visual (PseudoColor, GrayScale or

DirectColor). The default depends on your X server and how you run fvwm. In most case this default is

reasonable. The -l option should be used only if you encounter problems with colors. By default, fvwm

tries to detect large pre-allocated palettes. If such a palette is detected fvwm uses it and a priori

the -l must not be used. Moreover, in this case the -A and -S options are forced. Note that XFree-4.2

pre-allocates 244 colors (if you use a driver with Render support) leaving only a few free colors. This

may lead to some color problems (and nothing can be done). XFree-4.3 or better pre-allocate only 85

colors. If no pre-allocated palette is auto detected the defaults are as follow:

Display depth 8 (256 colors)

PseudoColor: 68 (4x4x4 color cube + 4 grey)

GrayScale: 64 regular grey

DirectColor: 32 (3x3x3 color cube + 5 grey)

Display depth 4 (16 colors)

PseudoColor: 10 (2x2x2 color cube + 2 grey)

GrayScale: 8 regular grey

DirectColor: 10 (2x2x2 color cube + 2 grey)

These defaults may change before version 2.6. Note that if you use a private color map (i.e., fvwm is

started with the -C or the -I options), then other defaults are used.

Now what to do if you encounter problems with colors? The first thing to do is to check if you really

cannot run your X server with depth 15, 16 or better. Check your X server documentation. Note that some

hardware can support two different depths on the same screen (typically depth 8 and depth 24). If depth

8 is the default, you can force fvwm to use the best depth by using the -C option with TrueColor as

argument. So now we assume that you are forced to run in depth 8 with a dynamic visual because your

hardware/driver cannot do better or because you need to use an application which needs to run under this

mode (e.g., because this application needs read-write colors). What it should be understand is that you

have only 256 colors and that all the applications which use the default color map must share these

colors. The main problem is that there are applications which use a lot or even all the colors. If you

use such application you may have no more free colors and some applications (which used only a few

colors) may fail to start or are unusable. There are three things that can be done (and fvwm does not

really play a particular role, all applications are concerned). The first is to run the applications

which waste your (default) color map with a private color map. For example, run netscape with the

-install option, run KDE or QT applications with the –cmap option, use the -C option for fvwm. The

disadvantage of this method is that it is visually disturbing (see the ColormapFocus command for a better

control of the color maps switching). The second method is to limit the number of colors that the

applications use. Again, some applications have options to specify a given color limit. With fvwm you

may try various values, 61 (a special “visual” palette), 56 (a 4x4x3 color cube plus 6 grey), 29 (a 3x3x3

color cube plus 2 grey), 10 or 9. Also, you may use the -L option. However, limiting the number of

colors is not the definitive solution. The definitive solution is to try cause applications which use a

lot of colors use the same colors. This is a difficult task as there are no formal standards for this

goal. However, some toolkits as QT and GTK use color cubes as palettes. So, the idea is to configure

your applications/toolkits to all use the same color cube. Moreover, you can use the colors in this

color cube in your X resources configuration files and/or as arguments to colors options. Fvwm can use

any color cube of the form RxGxB with 2 <= R <= 6, R = G, R-1 =< B <= R and B >= 2. To get an RxGxB

color cube give an argument to -l an integer c >= R*G*B and < (R+1)*(G+1)*B if B=R and < R*G*(B+1) if B <

R (and different from 61). If c > R*G*B, then some grey may be added to the color cube. You can use the

PrintInfo Colors [1] command to get information on your fvwm colors setting. In particular, this command

prints the palette used by fvwm in rgb format (the last integer gives the number of times fvwm has

allocated the colors).

-L | –strict-color-limit
If the screen displays 256 colors (or less) and has a dynamic visual, causes fvwm to use its palette for

all the colors. By default, the palette is used only for images and gradients.

-P | –visual-palette
If the screen displays 256 colors (or less) and has a dynamic visual, this option causes fvwm to use a

palette designed for limiting the “visual” color distance between the points of the palette. Moreover,

for better color sharing, if possible colors with a name in the X rgb data base are used for defining the

colors (with the hope that applications and images prefer to use named colors). If the -l option is not

used this palette has 61 colors. This palette is also automatically selected if 61 or 9 is used as

argument to the -l option.

-A | –allocate-palette
If the screen displays 256 colors (or less) and has a dynamic visual this option causes fvwm to allocate

all the colors of its palette at start up for reserving these colors for future use. This option forces

the -static-palette option. By default, fvwm allocates (reserves) a color in its palette only if it

needs this color.

-S | –static-palette
If the screen displays 256 colors (or less) and has a dynamic visual this option causes fvwm to never

free the colors in its palette. By default, when fvwm does not need a color any more it frees this color

so that a new color can be used. This option may speed up image loading and save a few bits of memory.

-blackout
This option is provided for backward compatibility only. Blacking out the screen during startup is not

necessary (and doesn’t work) anymore. This option will be removed in the future.

–debug-stack-ring
Enables stack ring debugging. This option is only intended for internal debugging and should only be

used by developers.

参考文献

man 1 fvwm, version FVWM 2.6.7