「rpm」- 包管理器命令

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这个命令有一个神奇的地方,同一个选项可能有多个含义:

rpm -i – 该命令中的
-i
--install的缩写,表示安装。

rpm -q -i – 该命令中的
-i
--info的缩写,表示显示包的信息。

#「Chapter 5. Getting Information About Packages
rpm -q -i filebeat

SYNOPSIS

QUERYING AND VERIFYING PACKAGES:

rpm {-q|–query} [select-options] [query-options]

rpm {-V|–verify} [select-options] [verify-options]

rpm –import PUBKEY …

rpm {-K|–checksig} [–nosignature] [–nodigest]

PACKAGE_FILE …

INSTALLING, UPGRADING, AND REMOVING PACKAGES:

rpm {-i|–install} [install-options] PACKAGE_FILE …

rpm {-U|–upgrade} [install-options] PACKAGE_FILE …

rpm {-F|–freshen} [install-options] PACKAGE_FILE …

rpm {-e|–erase} [–allmatches] [–nodeps] [–noscripts]

[–notriggers] [–test] PACKAGE_NAME …

MISCELLANEOUS:

rpm {–initdb|–rebuilddb}

rpm {–addsign|–resign} PACKAGE_FILE …

rpm {–querytags|–showrc}

rpm {–setperms|–setugids} PACKAGE_NAME …

select-options

[PACKAGE_NAME] [-a,–all] [-f,–file FILE]

[-g,–group GROUP] {-p,–package PACKAGE_FILE]

[–fileid ID] [–hdrid SHA1] [–pkgid MD5] [–tid TID]

[–querybynumber HDRNUM] [–triggeredby PACKAGE_NAME]

[–whatprovides CAPABILITY] [–whatrequires CAPABILITY]

query-options

[–changelog] [-c,–configfiles] [-d,–docfiles] [–dump]

[–filesbypkg] [-i,–info] [–last] [-l,–list]

[–provides] [–qf,–queryformat QUERYFMT]

[-R,–requires] [–obsoletes] [–scripts] [-s,–state]

[–triggers,–triggerscripts]

verify-options

[–nodeps] [–nofiles] [–noscripts]

[–nodigest] [–nosignature]

[–nolinkto] [–nofiledigest] [–nosize] [–nouser]

[–nogroup] [–nomtime] [–nomode] [–nordev]

[–nocaps]

install-options

[–aid] [–allfiles] [–badreloc] [–excludepath OLDPATH]

[–excludedocs] [–force] [-h,–hash]

[–ignoresize] [–ignorearch] [–ignoreos]

[–includedocs] [–justdb] [–nodeps]

[–nodigest] [–nosignature] [–nosuggest]

[–noorder] [–noscripts] [–notriggers]

[–oldpackage] [–percent] [–prefix NEWPATH]

[–relocate OLDPATH=NEWPATH]

[–replacefiles] [–replacepkgs]

[–test]

DESCRIPTION

rpm is a powerful Package Manager, which can be used to build, install,

query, verify, update, and erase individual software packages. A pack-

age consists of an archive of files and meta-data used to install and

erase the archive files. The meta-data includes helper scripts, file

attributes, and descriptive information about the package. Packages

come in two varieties: binary packages, used to encapsulate software to

be installed, and source packages, containing the source code and

recipe necessary to produce binary packages.

One of the following basic modes must be selected: Query, Verify, Sig-

nature Check, Install/Upgrade/Freshen, Uninstall, Initialize Database,

Rebuild Database, Resign, Add Signature, Set Owners/Groups, Show Query-

tags, and Show Configuration.

GENERAL OPTIONS

These options can be used in all the different modes.

-?, –help
Print a longer usage message then normal.

–version
Print a single line containing the version number of rpm being

used.

–quiet
Print as little as possible – normally only error messages will

be displayed.

-v Print verbose information – normally routine progress messages
will be displayed.

-vv Print lots of ugly debugging information.

–rcfile FILELIST
Each of the files in the colon separated FILELIST is read

sequentially by rpm for configuration information. Only the

first file in the list must exist, and tildes will be expanded

to the value of $HOME. The default FILELIST is

/usr/lib/rpm/rpmrc:/usr/lib/rpm/red-

hat/rpmrc:/etc/rpmrc:~/.rpmrc.

–pipe CMD
Pipes the output of rpm to the command CMD.

–dbpath DIRECTORY
Use the database in DIRECTORY rather than the default path

/var/lib/rpm

–root DIRECTORY
Use the file system tree rooted at DIRECTORY for all operations.

Note that this means the database within DIRECTORY will be used

for dependency checks and any scriptlet(s) (e.g. %post if

installing, or %prep if building, a package) will be run after a

chroot(2) to DIRECTORY.

-D, –define=’MACRO EXPR’
Defines MACRO with value EXPR.

-E, –eval=’EXPR’
Prints macro expansion of EXPR.

INSTALL AND UPGRADE OPTIONS

In these options, PACKAGE_FILE can be either rpm binary file or ASCII

package manifest (see PACKAGE SELECTION OPTIONS), and may be specified

as an ftp or http URL, in which case the package will be downloaded

before being installed. See FTP/HTTP OPTIONS for information on rpm’s

internal ftp and http client support.

The general form of an rpm install command is

rpm {-i|–install} [install-options] PACKAGE_FILE …

This installs a new package.

The general form of an rpm upgrade command is

rpm {-U|–upgrade} [install-options] PACKAGE_FILE …

This upgrades or installs the package currently installed to a newer

version. This is the same as install, except all other version(s) of

the package are removed after the new package is installed.

rpm {-F|–freshen} [install-options] PACKAGE_FILE …

This will upgrade packages, but only ones for which an earlier version

is installed.

–aid Add suggested packages to the transaction set when needed.

–allfiles
Installs or upgrades all the missingok files in the package,

regardless if they exist.

–badreloc
Used with –relocate, permit relocations on all file paths, not

just those OLDPATH’s included in the binary package relocation

hint(s).

–excludepath OLDPATH
Don’t install files whose name begins with OLDPATH.

–excludedocs
Don’t install any files which are marked as documentation (which

includes man pages and texinfo documents).

–force
Same as using –replacepkgs, –replacefiles, and –oldpackage.

-h, –hash
Print 50 hash marks as the package archive is unpacked. Use

with -v|–verbose for a nicer display.

–ignoresize
Don’t check mount file systems for sufficient disk space before

installing this package.

–ignorearch
Allow installation or upgrading even if the architectures of the

binary package and host don’t match.

–ignoreos
Allow installation or upgrading even if the operating systems of

the binary package and host don’t match.

–includedocs
Install documentation files. This is the default behavior.

–justdb
Update only the database, not the filesystem.

–nodigest
Don’t verify package or header digests when reading.

–nomanifest
Don’t process non-package files as manifests.

–nosignature
Don’t verify package or header signatures when reading.

–nodeps
Don’t do a dependency check before installing or upgrading a

package.

–nosuggest
Don’t suggest package(s) that provide a missing dependency.

–noorder
Don’t reorder the packages for an install. The list of packages

would normally be reordered to satisfy dependencies.

–noscripts

–nopre

–nopost

–nopreun

–nopostun
Don’t execute the scriptlet of the same name. The –noscripts

option is equivalent to

–nopre –nopost –nopreun –nopostun

and turns off the execution of the corresponding %pre, %post,

%preun, and %postun scriptlet(s).

–notriggers

–notriggerin

–notriggerun

–notriggerpostun
Don’t execute any trigger scriptlet of the named type. The

–notriggers option is equivalent to

–notriggerin –notriggerun –notriggerpostun

and turns off execution of the corresponding %triggerin, %trig-

gerun, and %triggerpostun scriptlet(s).

–oldpackage
Allow an upgrade to replace a newer package with an older one.

–percent
Print percentages as files are unpacked from the package

archive. This is intended to make rpm easy to run from other

tools.

–prefix NEWPATH
For relocatable binary packages, translate all file paths that

start with the installation prefix in the package relocation

hint(s) to NEWPATH.

–relocate OLDPATH=NEWPATH
For relocatable binary packages, translate all file paths that

start with OLDPATH in the package relocation hint(s) to NEWPATH.

This option can be used repeatedly if several OLDPATH’s in the

package are to be relocated.

–replacefiles
Install the packages even if they replace files from other,

already installed, packages.

–replacepkgs
Install the packages even if some of them are already installed

on this system.

–test Do not install the package, simply check for and report poten-
tial conflicts.

ERASE OPTIONS

The general form of an rpm erase command is

rpm {-e|–erase} [–allmatches] [–nodeps] [–noscripts] [–notriggers]

[–test] PACKAGE_NAME …

The following options may also be used:

–allmatches
Remove all versions of the package which match PACKAGE_NAME.

Normally an error is issued if PACKAGE_NAME matches multiple

packages.

–nodeps
Don’t check dependencies before uninstalling the packages.

–noscripts

–nopreun

–nopostun
Don’t execute the scriptlet of the same name. The –noscripts

option during package erase is equivalent to

–nopreun –nopostun

and turns off the execution of the corresponding %preun, and

%postun scriptlet(s).

–notriggers

–notriggerun

–notriggerpostun
Don’t execute any trigger scriptlet of the named type. The

–notriggers option is equivalent to

–notriggerun –notriggerpostun

and turns off execution of the corresponding %triggerun, and

%triggerpostun scriptlet(s).

–test Don’t really uninstall anything, just go through the motions.
Useful in conjunction with the -vv option for debugging.

QUERY OPTIONS

The general form of an rpm query command is

rpm {-q|–query} [select-options] [query-options]

You may specify the format that package information should be printed

in. To do this, you use the

–qf|–queryformat QUERYFMT

option, followed by the QUERYFMT format string. Query formats are mod-

ified versions of the standard printf(3) formatting. The format is made

up of static strings (which may include standard C character escapes

for newlines, tabs, and other special characters) and printf(3) type

formatters. As rpm already knows the type to print, the type specifier

must be omitted however, and replaced by the name of the header tag to

be printed, enclosed by {} characters. Tag names are case insensitive,

and the leading RPMTAG_ portion of the tag name may be omitted as well.

Alternate output formats may be requested by following the tag with

:typetag. Currently, the following types are supported:

:armor Wrap a public key in ASCII armor.

:arraysize
Display number of elements in array tags.

:base64
Encode binary data using base64.

:date Use strftime(3) “%c” format.

:day Use strftime(3) “%a %b %d %Y” format.

:depflags
Format dependency comparison operator.

:deptype
Format dependency type.

:fflags
Format file flags.

:fstate
Format file state.

:hex Format in hexadecimal.

:octal Format in octal.

:perms Format file permissions.

:pgpsig
Display signature fingerprint and time.

:shescape
Escape single quotes for use in a script.

:triggertype
Display trigger suffix.

:vflags
File verification flags.

:xml Wrap data in simple xml markup.

For example, to print only the names of the packages queried, you could

use %{NAME} as the format string. To print the packages name and dis-

tribution information in two columns, you could use %-30{NAME}%{DISTRI-

BUTION}. rpm will print a list of all of the tags it knows about when

it is invoked with the –querytags argument.

There are two subsets of options for querying: package selection, and

information selection.

PACKAGE SELECTION OPTIONS:

PACKAGE_NAME
Query installed package named PACKAGE_NAME.

-a, –all

查询所有已经安装的包。

-f, –file FILE
Query package owning FILE.

–fileid ID
Query package that contains a given file identifier. The ID is

the digest of the file contents. For different packages differ-

ent hash algorithms may have been used (MD5, SHA1, SHA256,

SHA384, SHA512, …)

-g, –group GROUP
Query packages with the group of GROUP.

–hdrid SHA1
Query package that contains a given header identifier, i.e. the

SHA1 digest of the immutable header region.

-p, –package PACKAGE_FILE
Query an (uninstalled) package PACKAGE_FILE. The PACKAGE_FILE

may be specified as an ftp or http style URL, in which case the

package header will be downloaded and queried. See FTP/HTTP

OPTIONS for information on rpm’s internal ftp and http client

support. The PACKAGE_FILE argument(s), if not a binary package,

will be interpreted as an ASCII package manifest unless –noman-

ifest option is used. In manifests, comments are permitted,

starting with a ’#’, and each line of a package manifest file

may include white space separated glob expressions, including

URL’s, that will be expanded to paths that are substituted in

place of the package manifest as additional PACKAGE_FILE argu-

ments to the query.

–pkgid MD5
Query package that contains a given package identifier, i.e. the

MD5 digest of the combined header and payload contents.

–querybynumber HDRNUM
Query the HDRNUMth database entry directly; this is useful only

for debugging.

–specfile SPECFILE
Parse and query SPECFILE as if it were a package. Although not

all the information (e.g. file lists) is available, this type of

query permits rpm to be used to extract information from spec

files without having to write a specfile parser.

–tid TID
Query package(s) that have a given TID transaction identifier. A

unix time stamp is currently used as a transaction identifier.

All package(s) installed or erased within a single transaction

have a common identifier.

–triggeredby PACKAGE_NAME
Query packages that are triggered by package(s) PACKAGE_NAME.

–whatprovides CAPABILITY
Query all packages that provide the CAPABILITY capability.

–whatrequires CAPABILITY
Query all packages that require CAPABILITY for proper function-

ing.

PACKAGE QUERY OPTIONS:

–changelog
Display change information for the package.

-c, –configfiles
List only configuration files (implies -l).

-d, –docfiles
List only documentation files (implies -l).

–dump Dump file information as follows (implies -l):

path size mtime digest mode owner group isconfig isdoc rdev symlink

–filesbypkg
List all the files in each selected package.

-i, –info
Display package information, including name, version, and

description. This uses the –queryformat if one was specified.

–last Orders the package listing by install time such that the latest
packages are at the top.

-l, –list
List files in package.

–provides
List capabilities this package provides.

-R, –requires
List capabilities on which this package depends.

–obsoletes
List packages this package obsoletes.

–scripts
List the package specific scriptlet(s) that are used as part of

the installation and uninstallation processes.

-s, –state
Display the states of files in the package (implies -l). The

state of each file is one of normal, not installed, or replaced.

–triggers, –triggerscripts
Display the trigger scripts, if any, which are contained in the

package.

VERIFY OPTIONS

The general form of an rpm verify command is

rpm {-V|–verify} [select-options] [verify-options]

Verifying a package compares information about the installed files in

the package with information about the files taken from the package

metadata stored in the rpm database. Among other things, verifying

compares the size, digest, permissions, type, owner and group of each

file. Any discrepancies are displayed. Files that were not installed

from the package, for example, documentation files excluded on instal-

lation using the “–excludedocs” option, will be silently ignored.

The package selection options are the same as for package querying

(including package manifest files as arguments). Other options unique

to verify mode are:

–nodeps
Don’t verify dependencies of packages.

–nodigest
Don’t verify package or header digests when reading.

–nofiles
Don’t verify any attributes of package files.

–noscripts
Don’t execute the %verifyscript scriptlet (if any).

–nosignature
Don’t verify package or header signatures when reading.

–nolinkto

–nofiledigest (formerly –nomd5)

–nosize

–nouser

–nogroup

–nomtime

–nomode

–nordev
Don’t verify the corresponding file attribute.

The format of the output is a string of 8 characters, a possible

attribute marker:

c %config configuration file.

d %doc documentation file.

g %ghost file (i.e. the file contents are not included in the package payload).

l %license license file.

r %readme readme file.

from the package header, followed by the file name. Each of the 8

characters denotes the result of a comparison of attribute(s) of the

file to the value of those attribute(s) recorded in the database. A

single “.” (period) means the test passed, while a single “?” (question

mark) indicates the test could not be performed (e.g. file permissions

prevent reading). Otherwise, the (mnemonically emBoldened) character

denotes failure of the corresponding –verify test:

S file Size differs

M Mode differs (includes permissions and file type)

5 digest (formerly MD5 sum) differs

D Device major/minor number mismatch

L readLink(2) path mismatch

U User ownership differs

G Group ownership differs

T mTime differs

P caPabilities differ

DIGITAL SIGNATURE AND DIGEST VERIFICATION

The general forms of rpm digital signature commands are

rpm –import PUBKEY …

rpm {–checksig} [–nosignature] [–nodigest]

PACKAGE_FILE …

The –checksig option checks all the digests and signatures contained

in PACKAGE_FILE to ensure the integrity and origin of the package. Note

that signatures are now verified whenever a package is read, and

–checksig is useful to verify all of the digests and signatures asso-

ciated with a package.

Digital signatures cannot be verified without a public key. An ASCII

armored public key can be added to the rpm database using –import. An

imported public key is carried in a header, and key ring management is

performed exactly like package management. For example, all currently

imported public keys can be displayed by:

rpm -qa gpg-pubkey*

Details about a specific public key, when imported, can be displayed by

querying. Here’s information about the Red Hat GPG/DSA key:

rpm -qi gpg-pubkey-db42a60e

Finally, public keys can be erased after importing just like packages.

Here’s how to remove the Red Hat GPG/DSA key

rpm -e gpg-pubkey-db42a60e

SIGNING A PACKAGE

rpm –addsign|–resign PACKAGE_FILE …

Both of the –addsign and –resign options generate and insert new sig-

natures for each package PACKAGE_FILE given, replacing any existing

signatures. There are two options for historical reasons, there is no

difference in behavior currently.

USING GPG TO SIGN PACKAGES

In order to sign packages using GPG, rpm must be configured to run GPG

and be able to find a key ring with the appropriate keys. By default,

rpm uses the same conventions as GPG to find key rings, namely the

$GNUPGHOME environment variable. If your key rings are not located

where GPG expects them to be, you will need to configure the macro

%_gpg_path to be the location of the GPG key rings to use.

For compatibility with older versions of GPG, PGP, and rpm, only V3

OpenPGP signature packets should be configured. Either DSA or RSA ver-

ification algorithms can be used, but DSA is preferred.

If you want to be able to sign packages you create yourself, you also

need to create your own public and secret key pair (see the GPG man-

ual). You will also need to configure the rpm macros

%_signature
The signature type. Right now only gpg and pgp are supported.

%_gpg_name
The name of the “user” whose key you wish to use to sign your

packages.

For example, to be able to use GPG to sign packages as the user “John

Doe <
jdoe@foo.com>” from the key rings located in /etc/rpm/.gpg using

the executable /usr/bin/gpg you would include

%_signature gpg

%_gpg_path /etc/rpm/.gpg

%_gpg_name John Doe <
jdoe@foo.com>

%__gpg /usr/bin/gpg

in a macro configuration file. Use /etc/rpm/macros for per-system con-

figuration and ~/.rpmmacros for per-user configuration. Typically it’s

sufficient to set just %_gpg_name.

REBUILD DATABASE OPTIONS

The general form of an rpm rebuild database command is

rpm {–initdb|–rebuilddb} [-v] [–dbpath DIRECTORY] [–root DIRECTORY]

Use –initdb to create a new database if one doesn’t already exist

(existing database is not overwritten), use –rebuilddb to rebuild the

database indices from the installed package headers.

MISCELLANEOUS COMMANDS

rpm –showrc
shows the values rpm will use for all of the options are cur-

rently set in rpmrc and macros configuration file(s).

rpm –setperms PACKAGE_NAME
sets permissions of files in the given package.

rpm –setugids PACKAGE_NAME
sets user/group ownership of files in the given package.

Options –setperms and –setugids are mutually exclusive.

FTP/HTTP OPTIONS

rpm can act as an FTP and/or HTTP client so that packages can be

queried or installed from the internet. Package files for install,

upgrade, and query operations may be specified as an ftp or http style

URL:

If the :PASSWORD portion is omitted, the password will be prompted for

(once per user/hostname pair). If both the user and password are omit-

ted, anonymous ftp is used. In all cases, passive (PASV) ftp transfers

are performed.

rpm allows the following options to be used with ftp URLs:

–ftpproxy HOST
The host HOST will be used as a proxy server for all ftp trans-

fers, which allows users to ftp through firewall machines which

use proxy systems. This option may also be specified by config-

uring the macro %_ftpproxy.

–ftpport PORT
The TCP PORT number to use for the ftp connection on the proxy

ftp server instead of the default port. This option may also be

specified by configuring the macro %_ftpport.

rpm allows the following options to be used with http URLs:

–httpproxy HOST
The host HOST will be used as a proxy server for all http trans-

fers. This option may also be specified by configuring the macro

%_httpproxy.

–httpport PORT
The TCP PORT number to use for the http connection on the proxy

http server instead of the default port. This option may also be

specified by configuring the macro %_httpport.

LEGACY ISSUES

Executing rpmbuild

The build modes of rpm are now resident in the /usr/bin/rpmbuild exe-

cutable. Install the package containing rpmbuild (usually rpm-build)

and see rpmbuild(8) for documentation of all the rpm build modes.

FILES

rpmrc Configuration

/usr/lib/rpm/rpmrc

/usr/lib/rpm/redhat/rpmrc

/etc/rpmrc

~/.rpmrc

Macro Configuration

/usr/lib/rpm/macros

/usr/lib/rpm/redhat/macros

/etc/rpm/macros

~/.rpmmacros

Database

/var/lib/rpm/Basenames

/var/lib/rpm/Conflictname

/var/lib/rpm/Dirnames

/var/lib/rpm/Filemd5s

/var/lib/rpm/Group

/var/lib/rpm/Installtid

/var/lib/rpm/Name

/var/lib/rpm/Packages

/var/lib/rpm/Providename

/var/lib/rpm/Provideversion

/var/lib/rpm/Pubkeys

/var/lib/rpm/Removed

/var/lib/rpm/Requirename

/var/lib/rpm/Requireversion

/var/lib/rpm/Sha1header

/var/lib/rpm/Sigmd5

/var/lib/rpm/Triggername

Temporary

/var/tmp/rpm*

SEE ALSO

popt(3),

rpm2cpio(8),

rpmbuild(8),

rpm –help – as rpm supports customizing the options via popt aliases

it’s impossible to guarantee that what’s described in the manual

matches what’s available.

参考文献