「innotop」-

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innotop,MySQL及InnoDB事务/状态监控。

章节列表

  • innotop的功能
  • innotop安装
  • 相关命令选项

innotop安装

从发行版的源中安装

#!/bin/sh

# Ubuntu 16.04 LTS:mariadb-client-10.0和mysql-client-5.7中都包含该命令,根据自己的需要来安装。
apt-get install mysql-client-5.7

从源码中安装
到Github上下载源码,下载地址:https://github.com/innotop/innotop.git
安装方法在INSTALL文件中,这里不再介绍。

命令行语法格式

To monitor servers normally:

innotop

To monitor InnoDB status information from a file:

innotop /var/log/mysql/mysqld.err

To run innotop non-interactively in a pipe-and-filter configuration:

innotop –count 5 -d 1 -n

To monitor a database on another system using a particular username and


password:

innotop -u <username> -p <password> -h <hostname>

命令简述

innotop monitors MySQL servers. Each of its modes shows you a different


aspect of what’s happening in the server. For example, there’s a mode for


monitoring replication, one for queries, and one for transactions.


innotop refreshes its data periodically, so you see an updating view.

innotop has lots of features for power users, but you can start and run it


with virtually no configuration. If you’re just getting started, see


“QUICK-START”. Press ‘?’ at any time while running innotop for context-


sensitive help.

快速开始

To start innotop, open a terminal or command prompt. If you have


installed innotop on your system, you should be able to just type


“innotop” and press Enter; otherwise, you will need to change to innotop’s


directory and type “perl innotop”.

With no options specified, innotop will attempt to connect to a MySQL


server on localhost using mysql_read_default_group=client for other


connection parameters. If you need to specify a different username and


password, use the -u and -p options, respectively. To monitor a MySQL


database on another host, use the -h option.

After you’ve connected, innotop should show you something like the


following:

[RO] Query List (? for help) localhost, 01:11:19, 449.44 QPS, 14/7/163 con/run

CXN When Load QPS Slow QCacheHit KCacheHit BpsIn BpsOut


localhost Total 0.00 1.07k 697 0.00% 98.17% 476.83k 242.83k

CXN Cmd ID User Host DB Time Query


localhost Query 766446598 test 10.0.0.1 foo 00:02 INSERT INTO table (

(This sample is truncated at the right so it will fit on a terminal when


running ‘man innotop’)

If your server is busy, you’ll see more output. Notice the first line on


the screen, which tells you that readonly is set to true ([RO]), what mode


you’re in and what server you’re connected to. You can change to other


modes with keystrokes; press ‘T’ to switch to a list of InnoDB


transactions, for example.

Press the ‘?’ key to see what keys are active in the current mode. You


can press any of these keys and innotop will either take the requested


action or prompt you for more input. If your system has Term::ReadLine


support, you can use TAB and other keys to auto-complete and edit input.

To quit innotop, press the ‘q’ key.

命令行支持的选项及含义

innotop is mostly configured via its configuration file, but some of the


configuration options can come from the command line. You can also


specify a file to monitor for InnoDB status output; see “MONITORING A


FILE” for more details.

You can negate some options by prefixing the option name with –no. For


example, –noinc (or –no-inc) negates “–inc”.

–color
Enable or disable terminal coloring. Corresponds to the “color”


config file setting.

–config
Specifies a configuration file to read. This option is non-sticky,


that is to say it does not persist to the configuration file itself.

–count
Refresh only the specified number of times (ticks) before exiting.


Each refresh is a pause for “interval” seconds, followed by requesting


data from MySQL connections and printing it to the terminal.

–delay
Specifies the amount of time to pause between ticks (refreshes).


Corresponds to the configuration option “interval”.

–help
Print a summary of command-line usage and exit.

–host
Host to connect to.

–inc
Specifies whether innotop should display absolute numbers or relative


numbers (offsets from their previous values). Corresponds to the


configuration option “status_inc”.

–mode
Specifies the mode in which innotop should start. Corresponds to the


configuration option “mode”.

–nonint
Enable non-interactive operation. See “NON-INTERACTIVE OPERATION” for


more.

–password
Password to use for connection.

–port
Port to use for connection.

–skipcentral
Don’t read the central configuration file.

–timestamp
In -n mode, write a timestamp either before every screenful of output,


or if the option is given twice, at the start of every line. The


format is controlled by the timeformat config variable.

–user
User to use for connection.

–version
Output version information and exit.

–write
Sets the configuration option “readonly” to 0, making innotop write


the running configuration to ~/.innotop/innotop.conf on exit, if no


configuration file was loaded at start-up.

快捷键

innotop is interactive, and you control it with key-presses.

· Uppercase keys switch between modes.

· Lowercase keys initiate some action within the current mode.

· Other keys do something special like change configuration or show the
innotop license.

Press ‘?’ at any time to see the currently active keys and what they do.

不同的模式

Each of innotop’s modes retrieves and displays a particular type of data


from the servers you’re monitoring. You switch between modes with


uppercase keys. The following is a brief description of each mode, in


alphabetical order. To switch to the mode, press the key listed in front


of its heading in the following list:

A: Health Dashboard
This mode displays a single table with one row per monitored server.


The columns show essential overview information about the server’s


health, and coloration rules show whether replication is running or if


there are any very long-running queries or excessive replication


delay.

B: InnoDB Buffers
This mode displays information about the InnoDB buffer pool, page


statistics, insert buffer, and adaptive hash index. The data comes


from SHOW INNODB STATUS.

This mode contains the “buffer_pool”, “page_statistics”,


“insert_buffers”, and “adaptive_hash_index” tables by default.

C: Command Summary
This mode is similar to mytop’s Command Summary mode. It shows the


“cmd_summary” table, which looks something like the following:

Command Summary (? for help) localhost, 25+07:16:43, 2.45 QPS, 3 thd, 5.0.40


_________________ Command Summary _________________


Name Value Pct Last Incr Pct


Select_scan 3244858 69.89% 2 100.00%


Select_range 1354177 29.17% 0 0.00%


Select_full_join 39479 0.85% 0 0.00%


Select_full_range_join 4097 0.09% 0 0.00%


Select_range_check 0 0.00% 0 0.00%

The command summary table is built by extracting variables from


“STATUS_VARIABLES”. The variables must be numeric and must match the


prefix given by the “cmd_filter” configuration variable. The


variables are then sorted by value descending and compared to the last


variable, as shown above. The percentage columns are percentage of


the total of all variables in the table, so you can see the relative


weight of the variables.

The example shows what you see if the prefix is “Select_”. The


default prefix is “Com_”. You can choose a prefix with the ‘s’ key.

It’s rather like running SHOW VARIABLES LIKE “prefix%” with memory and


nice formatting.

Values are aggregated across all servers. The Pct columns are not


correctly aggregated across multiple servers. This is a known


limitation of the grouping algorithm that may be fixed in the future.

D: InnoDB Deadlocks
This mode shows the transactions involved in the last InnoDB deadlock.


A second table shows the locks each transaction held and waited for.


A deadlock is caused by a cycle in the waits-for graph, so there


should be two locks held and one waited for unless the deadlock


information is truncated.

InnoDB puts deadlock information before some other information in the


SHOW INNODB STATUS output. If there are a lot of locks, the deadlock


information can grow very large, and there is a limit on the size of


the SHOW INNODB STATUS output. A large deadlock can fill the entire


output, or even be truncated, and prevent you from seeing other


information at all. If you are running innotop in another mode, for


example T mode, and suddenly you don’t see anything, you might want to


check and see if a deadlock has wiped out the data you need.

If it has, you can create a small deadlock to replace the large one.


Use the ‘w’ key to ‘wipe’ the large deadlock with a small one. This


will not work unless you have defined a deadlock table for the


connection (see “SERVER CONNECTIONS”).

You can also configure innotop to automatically detect when a large


deadlock needs to be replaced with a small one (see “auto_wipe_dl”).

This mode displays the “deadlock_transactions” and “deadlock_locks”


tables by default.

F: InnoDB Foreign Key Errors
This mode shows the last InnoDB foreign key error information, such as


the table where it happened, when and who and what query caused it,


and so on.

InnoDB has a huge variety of foreign key error messages, and many of


them are just hard to parse. innotop doesn’t always do the best job


here, but there’s so much code devoted to parsing this messy,


unparseable output that innotop is likely never to be perfect in this


regard. If innotop doesn’t show you what you need to see, just look


at the status text directly.

This mode displays the “fk_error” table by default.

I: InnoDB I/O Info
This mode shows InnoDB’s I/O statistics, including the I/O threads,


pending I/O, file I/O miscellaneous, and log statistics. It displays


the “io_threads”, “pending_io”, “file_io_misc”, and “log_statistics”


tables by default.

K: InnoDB Lock Waits
This mode shows information from InnoDB plugin’s transaction and


locking tables. You can use it to find when a transaction is waiting


for another, and kill the blocking transaction. It displays the


“innodb_blocked_blocker” table.

L: Locks
This mode shows information about current locks. At the moment only


InnoDB locks are supported, and by default you’ll only see locks for


which transactions are waiting. This information comes from the


TRANSACTIONS section of the InnoDB status text. If you have a very


busy server, you may have frequent lock waits; it helps to be able to


see which tables and indexes are the “hot spot” for locks. If your


server is running pretty well, this mode should show nothing.

You can configure MySQL and innotop to monitor not only locks for


which a transaction is waiting, but those currently held, too. You


can do this with the InnoDB Lock Monitor


(<http://dev.mysql.com/doc/en/innodb-monitor.html>). It’s not


documented in the MySQL manual, but creating the lock monitor with the


following statement also affects the output of SHOW INNODB STATUS,


which innotop uses:

CREATE TABLE innodb_lock_monitor(a int) ENGINE=INNODB;

This causes InnoDB to print its output to the MySQL file every 16


seconds or so, as stated in the manual, but it also makes the normal


SHOW INNODB STATUS output include lock information, which innotop can


parse and display (that’s the undocumented feature).

This means you can do what may have seemed impossible: to a limited


extent (InnoDB truncates some information in the output), you can see


which transaction holds the locks something else is waiting for. You


can also enable and disable the InnoDB Lock Monitor with the key


mappings in this mode.

This mode displays the “innodb_locks” table by default. Here’s a


sample of the screen when one connection is waiting for locks another


connection holds:

_____________________________ InnoDB Locks ______________________


CXN ID Type Waiting Wait Active Mode DB Table Index


localhost 12 RECORD 1 00:10 00:10 X test t1 PRIMARY


localhost 12 TABLE 0 00:10 00:10 IX test t1


localhost 12 RECORD 1 00:10 00:10 X test t1 PRIMARY


localhost 11 TABLE 0 00:00 00:25 IX test t1


localhost 11 RECORD 0 00:00 00:25 X test t1 PRIMARY

You can see the first connection, ID 12, is waiting for a lock on the


PRIMARY key on test.t1, and has been waiting for 10 seconds. The


second connection isn’t waiting, because the Waiting column is 0, but


it holds locks on the same index. That tells you connection 11 is


blocking connection 12.

M: Master/Slave Replication Status
This mode shows the output of SHOW SLAVE STATUS and SHOW MASTER STATUS


in three tables. The first two divide the slave’s status into SQL and


I/O thread status, and the last shows master status. Filters are


applied to eliminate non-slave servers from the slave tables, and non-


master servers from the master table.

This mode displays the “slave_sql_status”, “slave_io_status”, and


“master_status” tables by default.

O: Open Tables
This section comes from MySQL’s SHOW OPEN TABLES command. By default


it is filtered to show tables which are in use by one or more queries,


so you can get a quick look at which tables are ‘hot’. You can use


this to guess which tables might be locked implicitly.

This mode displays the “open_tables” mode by default.

U: User Statistics
This mode displays data that’s available in Percona’s enhanced version


of MySQL (also known as Percona Server with XtraDB). Specifically, it


makes it easy to enable and disable the so-called “user statistics.”


This feature gathers stats on clients, threads, users, tables, and


indexes and makes them available as INFORMATION_SCHEMA tables. These


are invaluable for understanding what your server is doing. They are


also available in MariaDB.

The statistics supported so far are only from the TABLE_STATISTICS and


INDEX_STATISTICS tables added by Percona. There are three views: one


of table stats, one of index stats (which can be aggregated with the =


key), and one of both.

The server doesn’t gather these stats by default. You have to set the


variable userstat_running to turn it on. You can do this easily with


innotop from U mode, with the ‘s’ key.

Q: Query List
This mode displays the output from SHOW FULL PROCESSLIST, much like


mytop’s query list mode. This mode does not show InnoDB-related


information. This is probably one of the most useful modes for


general usage.

There is an informative header that shows general status information


about your server. You can toggle it on and off with the ‘h’ key. By


default, innotop hides inactive processes and its own process. You


can toggle these on and off with the ‘i’ and ‘a’ keys.

You can EXPLAIN a query from this mode with the ‘e’ key. This


displays the query’s full text, the results of EXPLAIN, and in newer


MySQL versions, even the optimized query resulting from EXPLAIN


EXTENDED. innotop also tries to rewrite certain queries to make them


EXPLAIN-able. For example, INSERT/SELECT statements are rewritable.

This mode displays the “q_header” and “processlist” tables by default.

R: InnoDB Row Operations and Semaphores
This mode shows InnoDB row operations, row operation miscellaneous,


semaphores, and information from the wait array. It displays the


“row_operations”, “row_operation_misc”, “semaphores”, and “wait_array”


tables by default.

S: Variables & Status
This mode calculates statistics, such as queries per second, and


prints them out in several different styles. You can show absolute


values, or incremental values between ticks.

You can switch between the views by pressing a key. The ‘s’ key


prints a single line each time the screen updates, in the style of


vmstat. The ‘g’ key changes the view to a graph of the same numbers,


sort of like tload. The ‘v’ key changes the view to a pivoted table


of variable names on the left, with successive updates scrolling


across the screen from left to right. You can choose how many updates


to put on the screen with the “num_status_sets” configuration


variable.

Headers may be abbreviated to fit on the screen in interactive


operation. You choose which variables to display with the ‘c’ key,


which selects from predefined sets, or lets you create your own sets.


You can edit the current set with the ‘e’ key.

This mode doesn’t really display any tables like other modes.


Instead, it uses a table definition to extract and format the data,


but it then transforms the result in special ways before outputting


it. It uses the “var_status” table definition for this.

T: InnoDB Transactions
This mode shows transactions from the InnoDB monitor’s output, in


top-like format. This mode is the reason I wrote innotop.

You can kill queries or processes with the ‘k’ and ‘x’ keys, and


EXPLAIN a query with the ‘e’ or ‘f’ keys. InnoDB doesn’t print the


full query in transactions, so explaining may not work right if the


query is truncated.

The informational header can be toggled on and off with the ‘h’ key.


By default, innotop hides inactive transactions and its own


transaction. You can toggle this on and off with the ‘i’ and ‘a’


keys.

This mode displays the “t_header” and “innodb_transactions” tables by


default.

INNOTOP的状态

The first line innotop displays is a “status bar” of sorts. What it


contains depends on the mode you’re in, and what servers you’re


monitoring. The first few words are always [RO] (if readonly is set to


1), the innotop mode, such as “InnoDB Txns” for T mode, followed by a


reminder to press ‘?’ for help at any time.

ONE SERVER

The simplest case is when you’re monitoring a single server. In this


case, the name of the connection is next on the status line. This is the


name you gave when you created the connection — most likely the MySQL


server’s hostname. This is followed by the server’s uptime.

If you’re in an InnoDB mode, such as T or B, the next word is “InnoDB”


followed by some information about the SHOW INNODB STATUS output used to


render the screen. The first word is the number of seconds since the last


SHOW INNODB STATUS, which InnoDB uses to calculate some per-second


statistics. The next is a smiley face indicating whether the InnoDB


output is truncated. If the smiley face is a :-), all is well; there is


no truncation. A :^| means the transaction list is so long, InnoDB has


only printed out some of the transactions. Finally, a frown 🙁 means the


output is incomplete, which is probably due to a deadlock printing too


much lock information (see “D: InnoDB Deadlocks”).

The next two words indicate the server’s queries per second (QPS) and how


many threads (connections) exist. Finally, the server’s version number is


the last thing on the line.

MULTIPLE SERVERS

If you are monitoring multiple servers (see “SERVER CONNECTIONS”), the


status line does not show any details about individual servers. Instead,


it shows the names of the connections that are active. Again, these are


connection names you specified, which are likely to be the server’s


hostname. A connection that has an error is prefixed with an exclamation


point.

If you are monitoring a group of servers (see “SERVER GROUPS”), the status


line shows the name of the group. If any connection in the group has an


error, the group’s name is followed by the fraction of the connections


that don’t have errors.

See “ERROR HANDLING” for more details about innotop’s error handling.

MONITORING A FILE

If you give a filename on the command line, innotop will not connect to


ANY servers at all. It will watch the specified file for InnoDB status


output and use that as its data source. It will always show a single


connection called ‘file’. And since it can’t connect to a server, it


can’t determine how long the server it’s monitoring has been up; so it


calculates the server’s uptime as time since innotop started running.

服务器管理

While innotop is primarily a monitor that lets you watch and analyze your


servers, it can also send commands to servers. The most frequently useful


commands are killing queries and stopping or starting slaves.

You can kill a connection, or in newer versions of MySQL kill a query but


not a connection, from “Q: Query List” and “T: InnoDB Transactions” modes.


Press ‘k’ to issue a KILL command, or ‘x’ to issue a KILL QUERY command.


innotop will prompt you for the server and/or connection ID to kill


(innotop does not prompt you if there is only one possible choice for any


input). innotop pre-selects the longest-running query, or the oldest


connection. Confirm the command with ‘y’.

In “Slave Replication Status”” in “M: Master mode, you can start and stop


slaves with the ‘a’ and ‘o’ keys, respectively. You can send these


commands to many slaves at once. innotop fills in a default command of


START SLAVE or STOP SLAVE for you, but you can actually edit the command


and send anything you wish, such as SET GLOBAL SQL_SLAVE_SKIP_COUNTER=1 to


make the slave skip one binlog event when it starts.

You can also ask innotop to calculate the earliest binlog in use by any


slave and issue a PURGE MASTER LOGS on the master. Use the ‘b’ key for


this. innotop will prompt you for a master to run the command on, then


prompt you for the connection names of that master’s slaves (there is no


way for innotop to determine this reliably itself). innotop will find the


minimum binlog in use by these slave connections and suggest it as the


argument to PURGE MASTER LOGS.

in “U: User Statistics” mode, you can use the ‘s’ key to start and stop


the collection of the statistics data for TABLE_STATISTICS and similar.

服务器连接

When you create a server connection using ‘@’, innotop asks you for a


series of inputs, as follows:

DSN A DSN is a Data Source Name, which is the initial argument passed to
the DBI module for connecting to a server. It is usually of the form

DBI:mysql:;mysql_read_default_group=mysql;host=HOSTNAME

Since this DSN is passed to the DBD::mysql driver, you should read the


driver’s documentation at


“/search.cpan.org/dist/DBD-mysql/lib/DBD/mysql.pm”” in “http: for the


exact details on all the options you can pass the driver in the DSN.


You can read more about DBI at <http://dbi.perl.org/docs/>, and


especially at <http://search.cpan.org/~timb/DBI/DBI.pm>.

The mysql_read_default_group=mysql option lets the DBD driver read


your MySQL options files, such as ~/.my.cnf on UNIX-ish systems. You


can use this to avoid specifying a username or password for the


connection.

InnoDB Deadlock Table
This optional item tells innotop a table name it can use to


deliberately create a small deadlock (see “D: InnoDB Deadlocks”). If


you specify this option, you just need to be sure the table doesn’t


exist, and that innotop can create and drop the table with the InnoDB


storage engine. You can safely omit or just accept the default if you


don’t intend to use this.

Username
innotop will ask you if you want to specify a username. If you say


‘y’, it will then prompt you for a user name. If you have a MySQL


option file that specifies your username, you don’t have to specify a


username.

The username defaults to your login name on the system you’re running


innotop on.

Password
innotop will ask you if you want to specify a password. Like the


username, the password is optional, but there’s an additional prompt


that asks if you want to save the password in the innotop


configuration file. If you don’t save it in the configuration file,


innotop will prompt you for a password each time it starts. Passwords


in the innotop configuration file are saved in plain text, not


encrypted in any way.

Once you finish answering these questions, you should be connected to a


server. But innotop isn’t limited to monitoring a single server; you can


define many server connections and switch between them by pressing the ‘@’


key. See “SWITCHING BETWEEN CONNECTIONS”.

服务器组

If you have multiple MySQL instances, you can put them into named groups,


such as ‘all’, ‘masters’, and ‘slaves’, which innotop can monitor all


together.

You can choose which group to monitor with the ‘#’ key, and you can press


the TAB key to switch to the next group. If you’re not currently


monitoring a group, pressing TAB selects the first group.

To create a group, press the ‘#’ key and type the name of your new group,


then type the names of the connections you want the group to contain.

如何在连接之间切换

innotop lets you quickly switch which servers you’re monitoring. The most


basic way is by pressing the ‘@’ key and typing the name(s) of the


connection(s) you want to use. This setting is per-mode, so you can


monitor different connections in each mode, and innotop remembers which


connections you choose.

You can quickly switch to the ‘next’ connection in alphabetical order with


the ‘n’ key. If you’re monitoring a server group (see “SERVER GROUPS”)


this will switch to the first connection.

You can also type many connection names, and innotop will fetch and


display data from them all. Just separate the connection names with


spaces, for example “server1 server2.” Again, if you type the name of a


connection that doesn’t exist, innotop will prompt you for connection


information and create the connection.

Another way to monitor multiple connections at once is with server groups.


You can use the TAB key to switch to the ‘next’ group in alphabetical


order, or if you’re not monitoring any groups, TAB will switch to the


first group.

innotop does not fetch data in parallel from connections, so if you are


monitoring a large group or many connections, you may notice increased


delay between ticks.

When you monitor more than one connection, innotop’s status bar changes.


See “INNOTOP STATUS”.

错误处理

Error handling is not that important when monitoring a single connection,


but is crucial when you have many active connections. A crashed server or


lost connection should not crash innotop. As a result, innotop will


continue to run even when there is an error; it just won’t display any


information from the connection that had an error. Because of this,


innotop’s behavior might confuse you. It’s a feature, not a bug!

innotop does not continue to query connections that have errors, because


they may slow innotop and make it hard to use, especially if the error is


a problem connecting and causes a long time-out. Instead, innotop retries


the connection occasionally to see if the error still exists. If so, it


will wait until some point in the future. The wait time increases in


ticks as the Fibonacci series, so it tries less frequently as time passes.

Since errors might only happen in certain modes because of the SQL


commands issued in those modes, innotop keeps track of which mode caused


the error. If you switch to a different mode, innotop will retry the


connection instead of waiting.

By default innotop will display the problem in red text at the bottom of


the first table on the screen. You can disable this behavior with the


“show_cxn_errors_in_tbl” configuration option, which is enabled by


default. If the “debug” option is enabled, innotop will display the error


at the bottom of every table, not just the first. And if


“show_cxn_errors” is enabled, innotop will print the error text to STDOUT


as well. Error messages might only display in the mode that caused the


error, depending on the mode and whether innotop is avoiding querying that


connection.

非交互式操作

You can run innotop in non-interactive mode, in which case it is entirely


controlled from the configuration file and command-line options. To start


innotop in non-interactive mode, give the L”<–nonint”> command-line


option. This changes innotop’s behavior in the following ways:

· Certain Perl modules are not loaded. Term::Readline is not loaded,
since innotop doesn’t prompt interactively. Term::ANSIColor and


Win32::Console::ANSI modules are not loaded. Term::ReadKey is still


used, since innotop may have to prompt for connection passwords when


starting up.

· innotop does not clear the screen after each tick.

· innotop does not persist any changes to the configuration file.

· If “–count” is given and innotop is in incremental mode (see
“status_inc” and “–inc”), innotop actually refreshes one more time


than specified so it can print incremental statistics. This


suppresses output during the first tick, so innotop may appear to


hang.

· innotop only displays the first table in each mode. This is so the
output can be easily processed with other command-line utilities such


as awk and sed. To change which tables display in each mode, see


“TABLES”. Since “Q: Query List” mode is so important, innotop


automatically disables the “q_header” table. This ensures you’ll see


the “processlist” table, even if you have innotop configured to show


the q_header table during interactive operation. Similarly, in “T:


InnoDB Transactions” mode, the “t_header” table is suppressed so you


see only the “innodb_transactions” table.

· All output is tab-separated instead of being column-aligned with
whitespace, and innotop prints the full contents of each table instead


of only printing one screenful at a time.

· innotop only prints column headers once instead of every tick (see
“hide_hdr”). innotop does not print table captions (see


“display_table_captions”). innotop ensures there are no empty lines


in the output.

· innotop does not honor the “shorten” transformation, which normally
shortens some numbers to human-readable formats.

· innotop does not print a status line (see “INNOTOP STATUS”).

配置

Nearly everything about innotop is configurable. Most things are possible


to change with built-in commands, but you can also edit the configuration


file.

While running innotop, press the ‘$’ key to bring up the configuration


editing dialog. Press another key to select the type of data you want to


edit:

S: Statement Sleep Times
Edits SQL statement sleep delays, which make innotop pause for the


specified amount of time after executing a statement. See “SQL


STATEMENTS” for a definition of each statement and what it does. By


default innotop does not delay after any statements.

This feature is included so you can customize the side-effects caused


by monitoring your server. You may not see any effects, but some


innotop users have noticed that certain MySQL versions under very high


load with InnoDB enabled take longer than usual to execute SHOW GLOBAL


STATUS. If innotop calls SHOW FULL PROCESSLIST immediately afterward,


the processlist contains more queries than the machine actually


averages at any given moment. Configuring innotop to pause briefly


after calling SHOW GLOBAL STATUS alleviates this effect.

Sleep times are stored in the “stmt_sleep_times” section of the


configuration file. Fractional-second sleeps are supported, subject


to your hardware’s limitations.

c: Edit Columns
Starts the table editor on one of the displayed tables. See “TABLE


EDITOR”. An alternative way to start the table editor without


entering the configuration dialog is with the ‘^’ key.

g: General Configuration
Starts the configuration editor to edit global and mode-specific


configuration variables (see “MODES”). innotop prompts you to choose


a variable from among the global and mode-specific ones depending on


the current mode.

k: Row-Coloring Rules
Starts the row-coloring rules editor on one of the displayed table(s).


See “COLORS” for details.

p: Manage Plugins
Starts the plugin configuration editor. See “PLUGINS” for details.

s: Server Groups
Lets you create and edit server groups. See “SERVER GROUPS”.

t: Choose Displayed Tables
Lets you choose which tables to display in this mode. See “MODES” and


“TABLES”.

配置文件

innotop’s default configuration file locations are $HOME/.innotop and


/etc/innotop/innotop.conf, and they are looked for in that order. If the


first configuration file exists, the second will not be processed. Those


can be overridden with the “–config” command-line option. You can edit


it by hand safely, however innotop reads the configuration file when it


starts, and, if readonly is set to 0, writes it out again when it exits.


Thus, if readonly is set to 0, any changes you make by hand while innotop


is running will be lost.

innotop doesn’t store its entire configuration in the configuration file.


It has a huge set of default configuration values that it holds only in


memory, and the configuration file only overrides these defaults. When


you customize a default setting, innotop notices, and then stores the


customizations into the file. This keeps the file size down, makes it


easier to edit, and makes upgrades easier.

A configuration file is read-only be default. You can override that with


“–write”. See “readonly”.

The configuration file is arranged into sections like an INI file. Each


section begins with [section-name] and ends with [/section-name]. Each


section’s entries have a different syntax depending on the data they need


to store. You can put comments in the file; any line that begins with a #


character is a comment. innotop will not read the comments, so it won’t


write them back out to the file when it exits. Comments in read-only


configuration files are still useful, though.

The first line in the file is innotop’s version number. This lets innotop


notice when the file format is not backwards-compatible, and upgrade


smoothly without destroying your customized configuration.

The following list describes each section of the configuration file and


the data it contains:

general
The ‘general’ section contains global configuration variables and


variables that may be mode-specific, but don’t belong in any other


section. The syntax is a simple key=value list. innotop writes a


comment above each value to help you edit the file by hand.

S_func
Controls S mode presentation (see “S: Variables & Status”). If g,


values are graphed; if s, values are like vmstat; if p, values are


in a pivoted table.

S_set
Specifies which set of variables to display in “S: Variables &


Status” mode. See “VARIABLE SETS”.

auto_wipe_dl
Instructs innotop to automatically wipe large deadlocks when it


notices them. When this happens you may notice a slight delay.


At the next tick, you will usually see the information that was


being truncated by the large deadlock.

charset
Specifies what kind of characters to allow through the


“no_ctrl_char” transformation. This keeps non-printable


characters from confusing a terminal when you monitor queries that


contain binary data, such as images.

The default is ‘ascii’, which considers anything outside normal


ASCII to be a control character. The other allowable values are


‘unicode’ and ‘none’. ‘none’ considers every character a control


character, which can be useful for collapsing ALL text fields in


queries.

cmd_filter
This is the prefix that filters variables in “C: Command Summary”


mode.

color
Whether terminal coloring is permitted.

cxn_timeout
On MySQL versions 4.0.3 and newer, this variable is used to set


the connection’s timeout, so MySQL doesn’t close the connection if


it is not used for a while. This might happen because a


connection isn’t monitored in a particular mode, for example.

debug
This option enables more verbose errors and makes innotop more


strict in some places. It can help in debugging filters and other


user-defined code. It also makes innotop write a lot of


information to “debugfile” when there is a crash.

debugfile
A file to which innotop will write information when there is a


crash. See “FILES”.

display_table_captions
innotop displays a table caption above most tables. This variable


suppresses or shows captions on all tables globally. Some tables


are configured with the hide_caption property, which overrides


this.

global
Whether to show GLOBAL variables and status. innotop only tries


to do this on servers which support the GLOBAL option to SHOW


VARIABLES and SHOW STATUS. In some MySQL versions, you need


certain privileges to do this; if you don’t have them, innotop


will not be able to fetch any variable and status data. This


configuration variable lets you run innotop and fetch what data


you can even without the elevated privileges.

I can no longer find or reproduce the situation where GLOBAL


wasn’t allowed, but I know there was one.

graph_char
Defines the character to use when drawing graphs in “S: Variables


& Status” mode.

header_highlight
Defines how to highlight column headers. This only works if


Term::ANSIColor is available. Valid values are ‘bold’ and


‘underline’.

hide_hdr
Hides column headers globally.

interval
The interval at which innotop will refresh its data (ticks). The


interval is implemented as a sleep time between ticks, so the true


interval will vary depending on how long it takes innotop to fetch


and render data.

This variable accepts fractions of a second.

mode
The mode in which innotop should start. Allowable arguments are


the same as the key presses that select a mode interactively. See


“MODES”.

num_digits
How many digits to show in fractional numbers and percents. This


variable’s range is between 0 and 9 and can be set directly from


“S: Variables & Status” mode with the ‘+’ and ‘-‘ keys. It is


used in the “set_precision”, “shorten”, and “percent”


transformations.

num_status_sets
Controls how many sets of status variables to display in pivoted


“S: Variables & Status” mode. It also controls the number of old


sets of variables innotop keeps in its memory, so the larger this


variable is, the more memory innotop uses.

plugin_dir
Specifies where plugins can be found. By default, innotop stores


plugins in the ‘plugins’ subdirectory of your innotop


configuration directory.

readonly
Whether the configuration file is readonly. This cannot be set


interactively.

show_cxn_errors
Makes innotop print connection errors to STDOUT. See “ERROR


HANDLING”.

show_cxn_errors_in_tbl
Makes innotop display connection errors as rows in the first table


on screen. See “ERROR HANDLING”.

show_percent
Adds a ‘%’ character after the value returned by the “percent”


transformation.

show_statusbar
Controls whether to show the status bar in the display. See


“INNOTOP STATUS”.

skip_innodb
Disables fetching SHOW INNODB STATUS, in case your server(s) do


not have InnoDB enabled and you don’t want innotop to try to fetch


it. This can also be useful when you don’t have the SUPER


privilege, required to run SHOW INNODB STATUS.

spark
Specifies how wide a spark chart is. There are two ASCII spark


charts in A mode, showing QPS and User_threads_running.

status_inc
Whether to show absolute or incremental values for status


variables. Incremental values are calculated as an offset from


the last value innotop saw for that variable. This is a global


setting, but will probably become mode-specific at some point.


Right now it is honored a bit inconsistently; some modes don’t pay


attention to it.

timeformat
The C-style strftime()-compatible format for the timestamp line to


be printed in -n mode when -t is set.

plugins
This section holds a list of package names of active plugins. If the


plugin exists, innotop will activate it. See “PLUGINS” for more


information.

filters
This section holds user-defined filters (see “FILTERS”). Each line is


in the format filter_name=text=’filter text’ tbls=’table list’.

The filter text is the text of the subroutine’s code. The table list


is a list of tables to which the filter can apply. By default, user-


defined filters apply to the table for which they were created, but


you can manually override that by editing the definition in the


configuration file.

active_filters
This section stores which filters are active on each table. Each line


is in the format table_name=filter_list.

tbl_meta
This section stores user-defined or user-customized columns (see


“COLUMNS”). Each line is in the format col_name=properties, where the


properties are a name=quoted-value list.

connections
This section holds the server connections you have defined. Each line


is in the format name=properties, where the properties are a


name=value list. The properties are self-explanatory, and the only


one that is treated specially is ‘pass’ which is only present if


‘savepass’ is set. This section of the configuration file will be


skipped if any DSN, username, or password command-line options are


used. See “SERVER CONNECTIONS”.

active_connections
This section holds a list of which connections are active in each


mode. Each line is in the format mode_name=connection_list.

server_groups
This section holds server groups. Each line is in the format


name=connection_list. See “SERVER GROUPS”.

active_server_groups
This section holds a list of which server group is active in each


mode. Each line is in the format mode_name=server_group.

max_values_seen
This section holds the maximum values seen for variables. This is


used to scale the graphs in “S: Variables & Status” mode. Each line


is in the format name=value.

active_columns
This section holds table column lists. Each line is in the format


tbl_name=column_list. See “COLUMNS”.

sort_cols
This section holds the sort definition. Each line is in the format


tbl_name=column_list. If a column is prefixed with ‘-‘, that column


sorts descending. See “SORTING”.

visible_tables
This section defines which tables are visible in each mode. Each line


is in the format mode_name=table_list. See “TABLES”.

varsets
This section defines variable sets for use in “S: Status & Variables”


mode. Each line is in the format name=variable_list. See “VARIABLE


SETS”.

colors
This section defines colorization rules. Each line is in the format


tbl_name=property_list. See “COLORS”.

stmt_sleep_times
This section contains statement sleep times. Each line is in the


format statement_name=sleep_time. See “S: Statement Sleep Times”.

group_by
This section contains column lists for table group_by expressions.


Each line is in the format tbl_name=column_list. See “GROUPING”.

自定义INNOTOP

You can customize innotop a great deal. For example, you can:

· Choose which tables to display, and in what order.

· Choose which columns are in those tables, and create new columns.

· Filter which rows display with built-in filters, user-defined filters,
and quick-filters.

· Sort the rows to put important data first or group together related
rows.

· Highlight rows with color.

· Customize the alignment, width, and formatting of columns, and apply
transformations to columns to extract parts of their values or format


the values as you wish (for example, shortening large numbers to


familiar units).

· Design your own expressions to extract and combine data as you need.
This gives you unlimited flexibility.

All these and more are explained in the following sections.

TABLES

A table is what you’d expect: a collection of columns. It also has some


other properties, such as a caption. Filters, sorting rules, and


colorization rules belong to tables and are covered in later sections.

Internally, table meta-data is defined in a data structure called


%tbl_meta. This hash holds all built-in table definitions, which contain


a lot of default instructions to innotop. The meta-data includes the


caption, a list of columns the user has customized, a list of columns, a


list of visible columns, a list of filters, color rules, a sort-column


list, sort direction, and some information about the table’s data sources.


Most of this is customizable via the table editor (see “TABLE EDITOR”).

You can choose which tables to show by pressing the ‘$’ key. See “MODES”


and “TABLES”.

The table life-cycle is as follows:

· Each table begins with a data source, which is an array of hashes.
See below for details on data sources.

· Each element of the data source becomes a row in the final table.

· For each element in the data source, innotop extracts values from the
source and creates a row. This row is another hash, which later steps


will refer to as $set. The values innotop extracts are determined by


the table’s columns. Each column has an extraction subroutine,


compiled from an expression (see “EXPRESSIONS”). The resulting row is


a hash whose keys are named the same as the column name.

· innotop filters the rows, removing those that don’t need to be
displayed. See “FILTERS”.

· innotop sorts the rows. See “SORTING”.

· innotop groups the rows together, if specified. See “GROUPING”.

· innotop colorizes the rows. See “COLORS”.

· innotop transforms the column values in each row. See
“TRANSFORMATIONS”.

· innotop optionally pivots the rows (see “PIVOTING”), then filters and
sorts them.

· innotop formats and justifies the rows as a table. During this step,
innotop applies further formatting to the column values, including


alignment, maximum and minimum widths. innotop also does final error


checking to ensure there are no crashes due to undefined values.


innotop then adds a caption if specified, and the table is ready to


print.

The lifecycle is slightly different if the table is pivoted, as noted


above. To clarify, if the table is pivoted, the process is extract,


group, transform, pivot, filter, sort, create. If it’s not pivoted, the


process is extract, filter, sort, group, color, transform, create. This


slightly convoluted process doesn’t map all that well to SQL, but pivoting


complicates things pretty thoroughly. Roughly speaking, filtering and


sorting happen as late as needed to effect the final result as you might


expect, but as early as possible for efficiency.

Each built-in table is described below:

adaptive_hash_index
Displays data about InnoDB’s adaptive hash index. Data source:


“STATUS_VARIABLES”.

buffer_pool
Displays data about InnoDB’s buffer pool. Data source:


“STATUS_VARIABLES”.

cmd_summary
Displays weighted status variables. Data source: “STATUS_VARIABLES”.

deadlock_locks
Shows which locks were held and waited for by the last detected


deadlock. Data source: “DEADLOCK_LOCKS”.

deadlock_transactions
Shows transactions involved in the last detected deadlock. Data


source: “DEADLOCK_TRANSACTIONS”.

explain
Shows the output of EXPLAIN. Data source: “EXPLAIN”.

file_io_misc
Displays data about InnoDB’s file and I/O operations. Data source:


“STATUS_VARIABLES”.

fk_error
Displays various data about InnoDB’s last foreign key error. Data


source: “STATUS_VARIABLES”.

health_dashboard
Displays an overall summary of servers, one server per line, for


monitoring. Data source: “STATUS_VARIABLES”, “MASTER_SLAVE”,


“PROCESSLIST_STATS”.

index_statistics
Displays data from the INDEX_STATISTICS table in Percona-enhanced


servers.

index_table_statistics
Displays data from the INDEX_STATISTICS and TABLE_STATISTICS tables in


Percona-enhanced servers. It joins the two together, grouped by the


database and table name. It is the default view in “U: User


Statistics” mode, and makes it easy to see what tables are hot, how


many rows are read from indexes, how many changes are made, and how


many changes are made to indexes.

innodb_blocked_blocker
Displays InnoDB locks and lock waits. Data source:


“INNODB_BLOCKED_BLOCKER”.

innodb_locks
Displays InnoDB locks. Data source: “INNODB_LOCKS”.

innodb_transactions
Displays data about InnoDB’s current transactions. Data source:


“INNODB_TRANSACTIONS”.

insert_buffers
Displays data about InnoDB’s insert buffer. Data source:


“STATUS_VARIABLES”.

io_threads
Displays data about InnoDB’s I/O threads. Data source: “IO_THREADS”.

log_statistics
Displays data about InnoDB’s logging system. Data source:


“STATUS_VARIABLES”.

master_status
Displays replication master status. Data source: “STATUS_VARIABLES”.

open_tables
Displays open tables. Data source: “OPEN_TABLES”.

page_statistics
Displays InnoDB page statistics. Data source: “STATUS_VARIABLES”.

pending_io
Displays InnoDB pending I/O operations. Data source:


“STATUS_VARIABLES”.

processlist
Displays current MySQL processes (threads/connections). Data source:


“PROCESSLIST”.

q_header
Displays various status values. Data source: “STATUS_VARIABLES”.

row_operation_misc
Displays data about InnoDB’s row operations. Data source:


“STATUS_VARIABLES”.

row_operations
Displays data about InnoDB’s row operations. Data source:


“STATUS_VARIABLES”.

semaphores
Displays data about InnoDB’s semaphores and mutexes. Data source:


“STATUS_VARIABLES”.

slave_io_status
Displays data about the slave I/O thread. Data source:


“STATUS_VARIABLES”.

slave_sql_status
Displays data about the slave SQL thread. Data source:


“STATUS_VARIABLES”.

table_statistics
Displays data from the TABLE_STATISTICS table in Percona-enhanced


servers.

t_header
Displays various InnoDB status values. Data source:


“STATUS_VARIABLES”.

var_status
Displays user-configurable data. Data source: “STATUS_VARIABLES”.

wait_array
Displays data about InnoDB’s OS wait array. Data source:


“OS_WAIT_ARRAY”.

COLUMNS

Columns belong to tables. You can choose a table’s columns by pressing


the ‘^’ key, which starts the “TABLE EDITOR” and lets you choose and edit


columns. Pressing ‘e’ from within the table editor lets you edit the


column’s properties:

· hdr: a column header. This appears in the first row of the table.

· just: justification. ‘-‘ means left-justified and ” means right-
justified, just as with printf formatting codes (not a coincidence).

· dec: whether to further align the column on the decimal point.

· num: whether the column is numeric. This affects how values are
sorted (lexically or numerically).

· label: a small note about the column, which appears in dialogs that
help the user choose columns.

· src: an expression that innotop uses to extract the column’s data from
its source (see “DATA SOURCES”). See “EXPRESSIONS” for more on


expressions.

· minw: specifies a minimum display width. This helps stabilize the
display, which makes it easier to read if the data is changing


frequently.

· maxw: similar to minw.

· trans: a list of column transformations. See “TRANSFORMATIONS”.

· agg: an aggregate function. See “GROUPING”. The default is “first”.

· aggonly: controls whether the column only shows when grouping is
enabled on the table (see “GROUPING”). By default, this is disabled.


This means columns will always be shown by default, whether grouping


is enabled or not. If a column’s aggonly is set true, the column will


appear when you toggle grouping on the table. Several columns are set


this way, such as the count column on “processlist” and


“innodb_transactions”, so you don’t see a count when the grouping


isn’t enabled, but you do when it is.

· agghide: the reverse of aggonly. The column is hidden when grouping
is enabled.

FILTERS

Filters remove rows from the display. They behave much like a WHERE


clause in SQL. innotop has several built-in filters, which remove


irrelevant information like inactive queries, but you can define your own


as well. innotop also lets you create quick-filters, which do not get


saved to the configuration file, and are just an easy way to quickly view


only some rows.

You can enable or disable a filter on any table. Press the ‘%’ key


(mnemonic: % looks kind of like a line being filtered between two circles)


and choose which table you want to filter, if asked. You’ll then see a


list of possible filters and a list of filters currently enabled for that


table. Type the names of filters you want to apply and press Enter.

USER-DEFINED FILTERS

If you type a name that doesn’t exist, innotop will prompt you to create


the filter. Filters are easy to create if you know Perl, and not hard if


you don’t. What you’re doing is creating a subroutine that returns true


if the row should be displayed. The row is a hash reference passed to


your subroutine as $set.

For example, imagine you want to filter the processlist table so you only


see queries that have been running more than five minutes. Type a new


name for your filter, and when prompted for the subroutine body, press TAB


to initiate your terminal’s auto-completion. You’ll see the names of the


columns in the “processlist” table (innotop generally tries to help you


with auto-completion lists). You want to filter on the ‘time’ column.


Type the text “$set->{time} > 300” to return true when the query is more


than five minutes old. That’s all you need to do.

In other words, the code you’re typing is surrounded by an implicit


context, which looks like this:

sub filter {


my ( $set ) = @_;


# YOUR CODE HERE


}

If your filter doesn’t work, or if something else suddenly behaves


differently, you might have made an error in your filter, and innotop is


silently catching the error. Try enabling “debug” to make innotop throw


an error instead.

QUICK-FILTERS

innotop’s quick-filters are a shortcut to create a temporary filter that


doesn’t persist when you restart innotop. To create a quick-filter, press


the ‘/’ key. innotop will prompt you for the column name and filter text.


Again, you can use auto-completion on column names. The filter text can


be just the text you want to “search for.” For example, to filter the


“processlist” table on queries that refer to the products table, type ‘/’


and then ‘info product’. Internally, the filter is compiled into a


subroutine like this:

sub filter {


my ( $set ) = @_;


$set->{info} =~ m/product/;


}

The filter text can actually be any Perl regular expression, but of course


a literal string like ‘product’ works fine as a regular expression.

What if you want the filter to discard matching rows, rather than showing


matching rows? If you’re familiar with Perl regular expressions, you


might guess how to do this. You have to use a zero-width negative


lookahead assertion. If you don’t know what that means, don’t worry.


Let’s filter out all rows where the command is Gandalf. Type the


following:

  1. /
  2. cmd ^(?!Gandalf)

Behind the scenes innotop compiles the quick-filter into a specially


tagged filter that is otherwise like any other filter. It just isn’t


saved to the configuration file.

To clear quick-filters, press the ‘\’ key and innotop will clear them all


at once.

SORTING

innotop has sensible built-in defaults to sort the most important rows to


the top of the table. Like anything else in innotop, you can customize


how any table is sorted.

To start the sort dialog, start the “TABLE EDITOR” with the ‘^’ key,


choose a table if necessary, and press the ‘s’ key. You’ll see a list of


columns you can use in the sort expression and the current sort


expression, if any. Enter a list of columns by which you want to sort and


press Enter. If you want to reverse sort, prefix the column name with a


minus sign. For example, if you want to sort by column a ascending, then


column b descending, type ‘a -b’. You can also explicitly add a + in


front of columns you want to sort ascending, but it’s not required.

Some modes have keys mapped to open this dialog directly, and to quickly


reverse sort direction. Press ‘?’ as usual to see which keys are mapped


in any mode.

GROUPING

innotop can group, or aggregate, rows together (the terms are used


interchangeably). This is quite similar to an SQL GROUP BY clause. You


can specify to group on certain columns, or if you don’t specify any, the


entire set of rows is treated as one group. This is quite like SQL so


far, but unlike SQL, you can also select un-grouped columns. innotop


actually aggregates every column. If you don’t explicitly specify a


grouping function, the default is ‘first’. This is basically a


convenience so you don’t have to specify an aggregate function for every


column you want in the result.

You can quickly toggle grouping on a table with the ‘=’ key, which toggles


its aggregate property. This property doesn’t persist to the config file.

The columns by which the table is grouped are specified in its group_by


property. When you turn grouping on, innotop places the group_by columns


at the far left of the table, even if they’re not supposed to be visible.


The rest of the visible columns appear in order after them.

Two tables have default group_by lists and a count column built in:


“processlist” and “innodb_transactions”. The grouping is by connection


and status, so you can quickly see how many queries or transactions are in


a given status on each server you’re monitoring. The time columns are


aggregated as a sum; other columns are left at the default ‘first’


aggregation.

By default, the table shown in “S: Variables & Status” mode also uses


grouping so you can monitor variables and status across many servers. The


default aggregation function in this mode is ‘avg’.

Valid grouping functions are defined in the %agg_funcs hash. They include

first
Returns the first element in the group.

count
Returns the number of elements in the group, including undefined


elements, much like SQL’s COUNT(*).

avg Returns the average of defined elements in the group.

sum Returns the sum of elements in the group.

Here’s an example of grouping at work. Suppose you have a very busy


server with hundreds of open connections, and you want to see how many


connections are in what status. Using the built-in grouping rules, you


can press ‘Q’ to enter “Q: Query List” mode. Press ‘=’ to toggle grouping


(if necessary, select the “processlist” table when prompted).

Your display might now look like the following:

Query List (? for help) localhost, 32:33, 0.11 QPS, 1 thd, 5.0.38-log

CXN Cmd Cnt ID User Host Time Query


localhost Query 49 12933 webusr localhost 19:38 SELECT * FROM


localhost Sending Da 23 2383 webusr localhost 12:43 SELECT col1,


localhost Sleep 120 140 webusr localhost 5:18:12


localhost Statistics 12 19213 webusr localhost 01:19 SELECT * FROM

That’s actually quite a worrisome picture. You’ve got a lot of idle


connections (Sleep), and some connections executing queries (Query and


Sending Data). That’s okay, but you also have a lot in Statistics status,


collectively spending over a minute. That means the query optimizer is


having a really hard time generating execution plans for your statements.


Something is wrong; it should normally take milliseconds to plan queries.


You might not have seen this pattern if you didn’t look at your


connections in aggregate. (This is a made-up example, but it can happen


in real life).

PIVOTING

innotop can pivot a table for more compact display, similar to a Pivot


Table in a spreadsheet (also known as a crosstab). Pivoting a table makes


columns into rows. Assume you start with this table:

foo bar


=== ===


1 3


2 4

After pivoting, the table will look like this:

name set0 set1


==== ==== ====


foo 1 2


bar 3 4

To get reasonable results, you might need to group as well as pivoting.


innotop currently does this for “S: Variables & Status” mode.

COLORS

By default, innotop highlights rows with color so you can see at a glance


which rows are more important. You can customize the colorization rules


and add your own to any table. Open the table editor with the ‘^’ key,


choose a table if needed, and press ‘o’ to open the color editor dialog.

The color editor dialog displays the rules applied to the table, in the


order they are evaluated. Each row is evaluated against each rule to see


if the rule matches the row; if it does, the row gets the specified color,


and no further rules are evaluated. The rules look like the following:

state eq Locked black on_red


cmd eq Sleep white


user eq system user white


cmd eq Connect white


cmd eq Binlog Dump white


time > 600 red


time > 120 yellow


time > 60 green


time > 30 cyan

This is the default rule set for the “processlist” table. In order of


priority, these rules make locked queries black on a red background, “gray


out” connections from replication and sleeping queries, and make queries


turn from cyan to red as they run longer.

(For some reason, the ANSI color code “white” is actually a light gray.


Your terminal’s display may vary; experiment to find colors you like).

You can use keystrokes to move the rules up and down, which re-orders


their priority. You can also delete rules and add new ones. If you add a


new rule, innotop prompts you for the column, an operator for the


comparison, a value against which to compare the column, and a color to


assign if the rule matches. There is auto-completion and prompting at


each step.

The value in the third step needs to be correctly quoted. innotop does


not try to quote the value because it doesn’t know whether it should treat


the value as a string or a number. If you want to compare the column


against a string, as for example in the first rule above, you should enter


‘Locked’ surrounded by quotes. If you get an error message about a


bareword, you probably should have quoted something.

EXPRESSIONS

Expressions are at the core of how innotop works, and are what enables you


to extend innotop as you wish. Recall the table lifecycle explained in


“TABLES”. Expressions are used in the earliest step, where it extracts


values from a data source to form rows.

It does this by calling a subroutine for each column, passing it the


source data set, a set of current values, and a set of previous values.


These are all needed so the subroutine can calculate things like the


difference between this tick and the previous tick.

The subroutines that extract the data from the set are compiled from


expressions. This gives significantly more power than just naming the


values to fill the columns, because it allows the column’s value to be


calculated from whatever data is necessary, but avoids the need to write


complicated and lengthy Perl code.

innotop begins with a string of text that can look as simple as a value’s


name or as complicated as a full-fledged Perl expression. It looks at


each ‘bareword’ token in the string and decides whether it’s supposed to


be a key into the $set hash. A bareword is an unquoted value that isn’t


already surrounded by code-ish things like dollar signs or curly brackets.


If innotop decides that the bareword isn’t a function or other valid Perl


code, it converts it into a hash access. After the whole string is


processed, innotop compiles a subroutine, like this:

sub compute_column_value {


my ( $set, $cur, $pre ) = @_;


my $val = # EXPANDED STRING GOES HERE


return $val;


}

Here’s a concrete example, taken from the header table “q_header” in “Q:


Query List” mode. This expression calculates the qps, or Queries Per


Second, column’s values, from the values returned by SHOW STATUS:

Questions/Uptime_hires

innotop decides both words are barewords, and transforms this expression


into the following Perl code:

$set->{Questions}/$set->{Uptime_hires}

When surrounded by the rest of the subroutine’s code, this is executable


Perl that calculates a high-resolution queries-per-second value.

The arguments to the subroutine are named $set, $cur, and $pre. In most


cases, $set and $cur will be the same values. However, if “status_inc” is


set, $cur will not be the same as $set, because $set will already contain


values that are the incremental difference between $cur and $pre.

Every column in innotop is computed by subroutines compiled in the same


fashion. There is no difference between innotop’s built-in columns and


user-defined columns. This keeps things consistent and predictable.

TRANSFORMATIONS

Transformations change how a value is rendered. For example, they can


take a number of seconds and display it in H:M:S format. The following


transformations are defined:

commify
Adds commas to large numbers every three decimal places.

distill
Distills SQL into verb-noun-noun format for quick comprehension.

dulint_to_int
Accepts two unsigned integers and converts them into a single


longlong. This is useful for certain operations with InnoDB, which


uses two integers as transaction identifiers, for example.

fuzzy_time
Converts a number of seconds into a friendly, readable value like


“1h35m”.

no_ctrl_char
Removes quoted control characters from the value. This is affected by


the “charset” configuration variable.

This transformation only operates within quoted strings, for example,


values to a SET clause in an UPDATE statement. It will not alter the


UPDATE statement, but will collapse the quoted string to [BINARY] or


[TEXT], depending on the charset.

percent
Converts a number to a percentage by multiplying it by two, formatting


it with “num_digits” digits after the decimal point, and optionally


adding a percent sign (see “show_percent”).

secs_to_time
Formats a number of seconds as time in days+hours:minutes:seconds


format.

set_precision
Formats numbers with “num_digits” number of digits after the decimal


point.

shorten
Formats a number as a unit of 1024 (k/M/G/T) and with “num_digits”


number of digits after the decimal point.

TABLE EDITOR

The innotop table editor lets you customize tables with keystrokes. You


start the table editor with the ‘^’ key. If there’s more than one table


on the screen, it will prompt you to choose one of them. Once you do,


innotop will show you something like this:

Editing table definition for Buffer Pool. Press ? for help, q to quit.

name hdr label src


cxn CXN Connection from which cxn


buf_pool_size Size Buffer pool size IB_bp_buf_poo


buf_free Free Bufs Buffers free in the b IB_bp_buf_fre


pages_total Pages Pages total IB_bp_pages_t


pages_modified Dirty Pages Pages modified (dirty IB_bp_pages_m


buf_pool_hit_rate Hit Rate Buffer pool hit rate IB_bp_buf_poo


total_mem_alloc Memory Total memory allocate IB_bp_total_m


add_pool_alloc Add’l Pool Additonal pool alloca IB_bp_add_poo

The first line shows which table you’re editing, and reminds you again to


press ‘?’ for a list of key mappings. The rest is a tabular


representation of the table’s columns, because that’s likely what you’re


trying to edit. However, you can edit more than just the table’s columns;


this screen can start the filter editor, color rule editor, and more.

Each row in the display shows a single column in the table you’re editing,


along with a couple of its properties such as its header and source


expression (see “EXPRESSIONS”).

The key mappings are Vim-style, as in many other places. Pressing ‘j’ and


‘k’ moves the highlight up or down. You can then (d)elete or (e)dit the


highlighted column. You can also (a)dd a column to the table. This


actually just activates one of the columns already defined for the table;


it prompts you to choose from among the columns available but not


currently displayed. Finally, you can re-order the columns with the ‘+’


and ‘-‘ keys.

You can do more than just edit the columns with the table editor, you can


also edit other properties, such as the table’s sort expression and group-


by expression. Press ‘?’ to see the full list, of course.

If you want to really customize and create your own column, as opposed to


just activating a built-in one that’s not currently displayed, press the


(n)ew key, and innotop will prompt you for the information it needs:

· The column name: this needs to be a word without any funny characters,
e.g. just letters, numbers and underscores.

· The column header: this is the label that appears at the top of the
column, in the table header. This can have spaces and funny


characters, but be careful not to make it too wide and waste space on-


screen.

· The column’s data source: this is an expression that determines what
data from the source (see “TABLES”) innotop will put into the column.


This can just be the name of an item in the source, or it can be a


more complex expression, as described in “EXPRESSIONS”.

Once you’ve entered the required data, your table has a new column. There


is no difference between this column and the built-in ones; it can have


all the same properties and behaviors. innotop will write the column’s


definition to the configuration file, so it will persist across sessions.

Here’s an example: suppose you want to track how many times your slaves


have retried transactions. According to the MySQL manual, the


Slave_retried_transactions status variable gives you that data: “The total


number of times since startup that the replication slave SQL thread has


retried transactions. This variable was added in version 5.0.4.” This is


appropriate to add to the “slave_sql_status” table.

To add the column, switch to the replication-monitoring mode with the ‘M’


key, and press the ‘^’ key to start the table editor. When prompted,


choose slave_sql_status as the table, then press ‘n’ to create the column.


Type ‘retries’ as the column name, ‘Retries’ as the column header, and


‘Slave_retried_transactions’ as the source. Now the column is created,


and you see the table editor screen again. Press ‘q’ to exit the table


editor, and you’ll see your column at the end of the table.

变量设置

Variable sets are used in “S: Variables & Status” mode to define more


easily what variables you want to monitor. Behind the scenes they are


compiled to a list of expressions, and then into a column list so they can


be treated just like columns in any other table, in terms of data


extraction and transformations. However, you’re protected from the


tedious details by a syntax that ought to feel very natural to you: a SQL


SELECT list.

The data source for variable sets, and indeed the entire S mode, is the


combination of SHOW STATUS, SHOW VARIABLES, and SHOW INNODB STATUS.


Imagine that you had a huge table with one column per variable returned


from those statements. That’s the data source for variable sets. You can


now query this data source just like you’d expect. For example:

Questions, Uptime, Questions/Uptime as QPS

Behind the scenes innotop will split that variable set into three


expressions, compile them and turn them into a table definition, then


extract as usual. This becomes a “variable set,” or a “list of variables


you want to monitor.”

innotop lets you name and save your variable sets, and writes them to the


configuration file. You can choose which variable set you want to see


with the ‘c’ key, or activate the next and previous sets with the ‘>’ and


‘<‘ keys. There are many built-in variable sets as well, which should


give you a good start for creating your own. Press ‘e’ to edit the


current variable set, or just to see how it’s defined. To create a new


one, just press ‘c’ and type its name.

You may want to use some of the functions listed in “TRANSFORMATIONS” to


help format the results. In particular, “set_precision” is often useful


to limit the number of digits you see. Extending the above example,


here’s how:

Questions, Uptime, set_precision(Questions/Uptime) as QPS

Actually, this still needs a little more work. If your “interval” is less


than one second, you might be dividing by zero because Uptime is


incremental in this mode by default. Instead, use Uptime_hires:

Questions, Uptime, set_precision(Questions/Uptime_hires) as QPS

This example is simple, but it shows how easy it is to choose which


variables you want to monitor.

相关插件

innotop has a simple but powerful plugin mechanism by which you can extend


or modify its existing functionality, and add new functionality.


innotop’s plugin functionality is event-based: plugins register themselves


to be called when events happen. They then have a chance to influence the


event.

An innotop plugin is a Perl module (.pm) file placed in innotop’s


“plugin_dir” directory. On UNIX systems, you can place a symbolic link to


the module instead of putting the actual file there. innotop


automatically discovers files named “*.pm”. If there is a corresponding


entry in the “plugins” configuration file section, innotop loads and


activates the plugin.

The module must conform to innotop’s plugin interface. Additionally, the


source code of the module must be written in such a way that innotop can


inspect the file and determine the package name and description.

Package Source Convention

innotop inspects the plugin module’s source to determine the Perl package


name. It looks for a line of the form “package Foo;” and if found,


considers the plugin’s package name to be Foo. Of course the package name


can be a valid Perl package name such as Foo::Bar, with double colons (::)


and so on.

It also looks for a description in the source code, to make the plugin


editor more human-friendly. The description is a comment line of the form


“# description: Foo”, where “Foo” is the text innotop will consider to be


the plugin’s description.

Plugin Interface

The innotop plugin interface is quite simple: innotop expects the plugin


to be an object-oriented module it can call certain methods on. The


methods are

new(%variables)
This is the plugin’s constructor. It is passed a hash of innotop’s


variables, which it can manipulate (see “Plugin Variables”). It must


return a reference to the newly created plugin object.

At construction time, innotop has only loaded the general


configuration and created the default built-in variables with their


default contents (which is quite a lot). Therefore, the state of the


program is exactly as in the innotop source code, plus the


configuration variables from the “general” section in the config file.

If your plugin manipulates the variables, it is changing global data,


which is shared by innotop and all plugins. Plugins are loaded in the


order they’re listed in the config file. Your plugin may load before


or after another plugin, so there is a potential for conflict or


interaction between plugins if they modify data other plugins use or


modify.

register_for_events()
This method must return a list of events in which the plugin is


interested, if any. See “Plugin Events” for the defined events. If


the plugin returns an event that’s not defined, the event is ignored.

event handlers
The plugin must implement a method named the same as each event for


which it has registered. In other words, if the plugin returns qw(foo


bar) from register_for_events(), it must have foo() and bar() methods.


These methods are callbacks for the events. See “Plugin Events” for


more details about each event.

Plugin Variables

The plugin’s constructor is passed a hash of innotop’s variables, which it


can manipulate. It is probably a good idea if the plugin object saves a


copy of it for later use. The variables are defined in the innotop


variable %pluggable_vars, and are as follows:

action_for
A hashref of key mappings. These are innotop’s global hot-keys.

agg_funcs
A hashref of functions that can be used for grouping. See “GROUPING”.

config
The global configuration hash.

connections
A hashref of connection specifications. These are just specifications


of how to connect to a server.

dbhs
A hashref of innotop’s database connections. These are actual DBI


connection objects.

filters
A hashref of filters applied to table rows. See “FILTERS” for more.

modes
A hashref of modes. See “MODES” for more.

server_groups
A hashref of server groups. See “SERVER GROUPS”.

tbl_meta
A hashref of innotop’s table meta-data, with one entry per table (see


“TABLES” for more information).

trans_funcs
A hashref of transformation functions. See “TRANSFORMATIONS”.

var_sets
A hashref of variable sets. See “VARIABLE SETS”.

Plugin Events

Each event is defined somewhere in the innotop source code. When innotop


runs that code, it executes the callback function for each plugin that


expressed its interest in the event. innotop passes some data for each


event. The events are defined in the %event_listener_for variable, and


are as follows:

extract_values($set, $cur, $pre, $tbl)
This event occurs inside the function that extracts values from a data


source. The arguments are the set of values, the current values, the


previous values, and the table name.

set_to_tbl
Events are defined at many places in this subroutine, which is


responsible for turning an arrayref of hashrefs into an arrayref of


lines that can be printed to the screen. The events all pass the same


data: an arrayref of rows and the name of the table being created.


The events are set_to_tbl_pre_filter,


set_to_tbl_pre_sort,set_to_tbl_pre_group, set_to_tbl_pre_colorize,


set_to_tbl_pre_transform, set_to_tbl_pre_pivot, set_to_tbl_pre_create,


set_to_tbl_post_create.

draw_screen($lines)
This event occurs inside the subroutine that prints the lines to the


screen. $lines is an arrayref of strings.

Simple Plugin Example

The easiest way to explain the plugin functionality is probably with a


simple example. The following module adds a column to the beginning of


every table and sets its value to 1. (If you copy and paste this example


code, be sure to remove the first space from each line; lines such as ‘#


description’ must not start with whitespace).

use strict;


use warnings FATAL => ‘all’;

package Innotop::Plugin::Example;


# description: Adds an ‘example’ column to every table

sub new {


my ( $class, %vars ) = @_;


# Store reference to innotop’s variables in $self


my $self = bless { %vars }, $class;

# Design the example column


my $col = {
hdr => ‘Example’,


just => ”,


dec => 0,


num => 1,


label => ‘Example’,


src => ‘example’, # Get data from this column in the data source


tbl => ”,


trans => [],
};

# Add the column to every table.


my $tbl_meta = $vars{tbl_meta};


foreach my $tbl ( values %$tbl_meta ) {
# Add the column to the list of defined columns


$tbl->{cols}->{example} = $col;


# Add the column to the list of visible columns


unshift @{$tbl->{visible}}, ‘example’;
}

# Be sure to return a reference to the object.


return $self;


}

# I’d like to be called when a data set is being rendered into a table, please.


sub register_for_events {


my ( $self ) = @_;


return qw(set_to_tbl_pre_filter);


}

# This method will be called when the event fires.


sub set_to_tbl_pre_filter {


my ( $self, $rows, $tbl ) = @_;


# Set the example column’s data source to the value 1.


foreach my $row ( @$rows ) {
$row->{example} = 1;
}


}

1;

Plugin Editor

The plugin editor lets you view the plugins innotop discovered and


activate or deactivate them. Start the editor by pressing $ to start the


configuration editor from any mode. Press the ‘p’ key to start the plugin


editor. You’ll see a list of plugins innotop discovered. You can use the


‘j’ and ‘k’ keys to move the highlight to the desired one, then press the


* key to toggle it active or inactive. Exit the editor and restart


innotop for the changes to take effect.

SQL语句

innotop uses a limited set of SQL statements to retrieve data from MySQL


for display. The statements are customized depending on the server


version against which they are executed; for example, on MySQL 5 and


newer, INNODB_STATUS executes “SHOW ENGINE INNODB STATUS”, while on


earlier versions it executes “SHOW INNODB STATUS”. The statements are as


follows:

Statement SQL executed


=================== ===============================


INDEX_STATISTICS SELECT * FROM INFORMATION_SCHEMA.INDEX_STATISTICS


INNODB_STATUS SHOW [ENGINE] INNODB STATUS


KILL_CONNECTION KILL


KILL_QUERY KILL QUERY


OPEN_TABLES SHOW OPEN TABLES


PROCESSLIST SHOW FULL PROCESSLIST


SHOW_MASTER_LOGS SHOW MASTER LOGS


SHOW_MASTER_STATUS SHOW MASTER STATUS


SHOW_SLAVE_STATUS SHOW SLAVE STATUS


SHOW_STATUS SHOW [GLOBAL] STATUS


SHOW_VARIABLES SHOW [GLOBAL] VARIABLES


TABLE_STATISTICS SELECT * FROM INFORMATION_SCHEMA.TABLE_STATISTICS

数据源(DATA SOURCES)

Each time innotop extracts values to create a table (see “EXPRESSIONS” and


“TABLES”), it does so from a particular data source. Largely because of


the complex data extracted from SHOW INNODB STATUS, this is slightly


messy. SHOW INNODB STATUS contains a mixture of single values and


repeated values that form nested data sets.

Whenever innotop fetches data from MySQL, it adds two extra bits to each


set: cxn and Uptime_hires. cxn is the name of the connection from which


the data came. Uptime_hires is a high-resolution version of the server’s


Uptime status variable, which is important if your “interval” setting is


sub-second.

Here are the kinds of data sources from which data is extracted:

STATUS_VARIABLES
This is the broadest category, into which the most kinds of data fall.


It begins with the combination of SHOW STATUS and SHOW VARIABLES, but


other sources may be included as needed, for example, SHOW MASTER


STATUS and SHOW SLAVE STATUS, as well as many of the non-repeated


values from SHOW INNODB STATUS.

DEADLOCK_LOCKS
This data is extracted from the transaction list in the LATEST


DETECTED DEADLOCK section of SHOW INNODB STATUS. It is nested two


levels deep: transactions, then locks.

DEADLOCK_TRANSACTIONS
This data is from the transaction list in the LATEST DETECTED DEADLOCK


section of SHOW INNODB STATUS. It is nested one level deep.

EXPLAIN
This data is from the result set returned by EXPLAIN.

INNODB_BLOCKED_BLOCKER
This data is from the INFORMATION_SCHEMA tables related to InnoDB


locks and the processlist.

INNODB_TRANSACTIONS
This data is from the TRANSACTIONS section of SHOW INNODB STATUS.

IO_THREADS
This data is from the list of threads in the the FILE I/O section of


SHOW INNODB STATUS.

INNODB_LOCKS
This data is from the TRANSACTIONS section of SHOW INNODB STATUS and


is nested two levels deep.

MASTER_SLAVE
This data is from the combination of SHOW MASTER STATUS and SHOW SLAVE


STATUS.

OPEN_TABLES
This data is from SHOW OPEN TABLES.

PROCESSLIST
This data is from SHOW FULL PROCESSLIST.

PROCESSLIST_STATS
This data is from SHOW FULL PROCESSLIST and computes stats such as the


maximum time a user query has been running, and how many user queries


are running. A “user query” excludes replication threads.

OS_WAIT_ARRAY
This data is from the SEMAPHORES section of SHOW INNODB STATUS and is


nested one level deep. It comes from the lines that look like this:

–Thread 1568861104 has waited at btr0cur.c line 424 ….

MySQL权限

· You must connect to MySQL as a user who has the SUPER privilege for
many of the functions.

· If you don’t have the SUPER privilege, you can still run some
functions, but you won’t necessarily see all the same data.

· You need the PROCESS privilege to see the list of currently running
queries in Q mode.

· You need special privileges to start and stop slave servers.

· You need appropriate privileges to create and drop the deadlock tables
if needed (see “SERVER CONNECTIONS”).

系统要求

You need Perl to run innotop, of course. You also need a few Perl


modules: DBI, DBD::mysql, Term::ReadKey, and Time::HiRes. These should


be included with most Perl distributions, but in case they are not, I


recommend using versions distributed with your operating system or Perl


distribution, not from CPAN. Term::ReadKey in particular has been known


to cause problems if installed from CPAN.

If you have Term::ANSIColor, innotop will use it to format headers more


readably and compactly. (Under Microsoft Windows, you also need


Win32::Console::ANSI for terminal formatting codes to be honored). If you


install Term::ReadLine, preferably Term::ReadLine::Gnu, you’ll get nice


auto-completion support.

I run innotop on Gentoo GNU/Linux, Debian and Ubuntu, and I’ve had


feedback from people successfully running it on Red Hat, CentOS, Solaris,


and Mac OSX. I don’t see any reason why it won’t work on other UNIX-ish


operating systems, but I don’t know for sure. It also runs on Windows


under ActivePerl without problem.

innotop has been used on MySQL versions 3.23.58, 4.0.27, 4.1.0, 4.1.22,


5.0.26, 5.1.15, and 5.2.3. If it doesn’t run correctly for you, that is a


bug that should be reported.

相关文件

$HOMEDIR/.innotop and/or /etc/innotop are used to store configuration


information. Files include the configuration file innotop.conf, the


core_dump file which contains verbose error messages if “debug” is


enabled, and the plugins/ subdirectory.

相关专业属于

tick
A tick is a refresh event, when innotop re-fetches data from


connections and displays it.

相关知识

The following people and organizations are acknowledged for various


reasons. Hopefully no one has been forgotten.

Aaron Racine, Allen K. Smith, Aurimas Mikalauskas, Bartosz Fenski, Brian


Miezejewski, Christian Hammers, Cyril Scetbon, Dane Miller, David Multer,


Dr. Frank Ullrich, Giuseppe Maxia, Google.com Site Reliability Engineers,


Google Code, Jan Pieter Kunst, Jari Aalto, Jay Pipes, Jeremy Zawodny,


Johan Idren, Kristian Kohntopp, Lenz Grimmer, Maciej Dobrzanski, Michiel


Betel, MySQL AB, Paul McCullagh, Sebastien Estienne, Sourceforge.net,


Steven Kreuzer, The Gentoo MySQL Team, Trevor Price, Yaar Schnitman, and


probably more people that have not been included.

(If your name has been misspelled, it’s probably out of fear of putting


international characters into this documentation; earlier versions of Perl


might not be able to compile it then).

参考文献

  • man 1 innotop
  • 源码目录 / INSTALL文件